Mango juice in kilome!


1st, there are 5 mango species (local) in kilome giving it 5 distinct mango juice flavours when you leave out blending of the flavours- seehere
Each with it’s own taste, sugar content and fibre content. The preferred mangoes for juice are those with as thin or little fibre as possible, though that doesn’t relate in reality to the tastiest or most unique flavoured and scented natural mango juice.
* grafted mangoes are also available and tend to have little fiber but are bland compared to the local species. (see here)
To make 4 glasses of sweet n fresh kilome mango juice you will require
2 ripe mangoes
1 cup water
2 tablespoons sugar
Few ice cubes (optional)
*you adjust water added with ice cubes added as ice cubes tend to dilute drink as they melt also making drink less sugary
*the more fibre it has the more filtering it will require.

- Peel washed mangoes with knife then slice & cut to small pieces in a clean bakuli(bowl/plate).
- Place cut mango into a blender (available in all supermarkets starting from about 2500/=) * those without electricity can buy a small generator like those used by rural churches for 3000/= – 8000/=

- Place mango and boiled water into Blender and blend it till it becomes smooth. *water can be pre boiled with sugar, however use immediately it cools.
- sieve blended mango with a (kichungi/sieve) with a mesh 0.025 inches available in most large supermarkets. This is used to remove fiber in this blended juice which will look like this
When squeezed this fibre resembles this

- serve your drink with ice or freeze it. Left out of fridge it takes a day to start fermenting.
- Pectin can be added to add shelf life. It is either bought in powder form or can be made from peels of mangoes! This later method I’ve used successfully for shelf use upto a week unrefridgerated
In the coming weeks will cover other food processes.
*important is that your product will be consumed by public means you should be responsible to their health safety and law requires you take your products for government testing and certification

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Salama Sunset

March 30, 2014 Leave a comment


Looking out towards Salama and into masailand at sunset are these gradient landscapes as the sun sets.

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Making Poultry Feeds

March 14, 2014 Leave a comment

Feeds account for more than 80 per cent of poultry production costs. A farmer who manages to bring down this cost to about 50 to 60 per cent stands to make good returns in the poultry business. Farmers who formulate and make their own feeds at home save an average of Ksh 840 for every 70kg
bag of chicken feed, which is a great saving for those doing commercial production.

Below, we give farmers some guidance on what they need to be able to formulate their own feeds and cut down their production costs:

Preparing layers chick mash (1-4 weeks)
Since they are growing, chicks require feed with Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) of between 18 to 20 per cent. Amino acids are important additives in all feeds in order to make a complete feed for all animals. For hybrid chickens the addition of amino acids is very important to maintain a balanced
diet for fast growth.

The following ingredients can be used to make a 70 kg bag of chick mash:
31.5kg of whole maize
9.1kg of wheat bran
7.0 kg of wheat pollard
16.8 kg of sunflower (or 16.8 kg of linseed)
1.5 kg of fishmeal
1.75 kg of lime
30g of salt
20g of premix Amino acids
70g of tryptophan
3.0g of lysine
10g of methionine
70 g of threonine
50g of enzymes
60g of coccidiostat
50g of toxin binder
To make a 70 kg bag growers feed (1 to 8 weeks)

It is important to remember that pullets or young layers should be provided with feed having a protein content of between
16 and 18 per cent. Such feed makes the pullet to grow fast and prepare for egg laying. Layers’ feed should never be fed to chickens younger than 18 weeks as it contains calcium that can damage their body organs such as kidneys (they can develop kidney stones), which interfere with egg production and also shorten their lifespan. Grit (sand) should be provided to growers that are not on free range to aid in digestion.

Making a 70 kg bag of layers’ mash (18 weeks and above)
34kg of whole maize
12kg of Soya
8kg of fishmeal
10kg of maize bran, rice germ or
wheat bran
6 kg of lime
175g premix Amino acids
70g lysine
35g methionine
70kg tryonine
35g tryptophan
50g toxin binder
Layer feed should contain a
Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) content of between 16-18 per cent. The feed should contain calcium for the formation of eggshells (Laying hens that do not get enough calcium will use the calcium stored in their own born tissue to produce eggshells). Layer feed should be introduced at 18 weeks.

Formulating a 70 kg bag of broiler feed

Broilers have different feed requirements in terms of energy, proteins and minerals during different stages of their growth. It is important that farmers adapt feed rations to these requirements for maximum production. Young broilers have a high protein requirement for the development of muscles,
feathers, etc. As the broilers grow, their energy requirements for the deposit of fat increase and their protein requirements decrease. They
therefore require high protein content in their starter rations than in the grower and finisher rations.
Broilers should have feed that has between 22 – 24 per cent DCP. The following guidelines can help the farmer to make the right feed at each stage of growth:

Preparing broiler growers feed (70kg) A drum mixer is good for mixing home made feeds
10kg of whole maize
16.7kg of maize germ
13.3kg of wheat pollard
10 kg wheat bran
6 kg of cotton seed cake
4.7kg of sunflower cake
3kg of fishmeal 2kg of lime
3.4kg of soya meal
40g of bone meal
10g of grower PMX
5g of salt
5g of coccidiostat
5g of Zincbacitrach
Broiler starter feed (1-4 weeks)
40kg of whole maize
12kg of fishmeal ( or omena)
14kg of soya bean meal
4kg of lime
70g of premix
Amino acids
35g of lysine
35g of threonine

Important tips on feed preparation

  • - When making home made feed rations, it is important to do experimental trials, by isolating a number of chickens, feeding them and observing their performance. If the feed rations are right, the broilers will grow fast and layer will increase egg production (at least 1 egg after every 27 hours).
  • - Farmers should be very careful with the quality of feed ingredients or raw materials. Chickens are very sensitive to feeds that contain mycotoxins which are present in most of the raw materials. Never use rotten maize ( maozo) to make chicken feed.
  • - Buy quality fishmeal from reputable companies. If omena is used the farmers must be sure of its quality; most of the omena in the open-air markets may be contaminated.
  • - It is very important to mix all the micronutrients (amino acids) first before mixing with the rest of the feed.
  • - For mixing, farmers are advised to use a drum mixer (many jua kali artisans can make one). Never use a shovel to mix feed because the ingredients will be unevenly distributed.
  • - Spoilt maize is the main source of animal feed in Kenya. Such feed is dangerous as it ends up in human food in eggs, meat and even milk from dairy cows and goats.
  • - It is easier for small-scale farmers working in groups to buy some of the ingredients such as pre-mixes and amino acids after which they can

share the product according to each one’s contribution.

Important: To improve on the feed quality, farmers making their own feeds should always have it tested to ensure the feed is well balanced.
The KARI Centre in Naivasha has modern feed testing equipment that can test all nutrients and even the quality of the raw material used. It costs Ksh1000 to test one sample.
After preparing your feed, take a 1kg sample; send it by courier to KARI, Naivasha, Tel. 0726 264 032 or 0738 390 715. If you are on email, the centre can send the results to you. within 24 hours. Raw material suppliers Farmers who need raw materials for feed making including feed additives (pre-mixes and amino acids) can order them from the following companies:
1. Essential Drugs Ltd, E.D.L
House, Mombasa Rd, Tel. 020
263 2701/02, 0721 386 604 email:
2. Tarime suppliers Tel. 0729 099550, City stadium, Nairobi,

OR (Another Method)

The Pearson Square method:

Relies on the Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) as the basic nutritional requirement for feed. The most common ingredients used are whole maize, maize germ, cotton seed cake, soya beans, sunflower or omena (fishmeal).

Example 1: Feed for Layers
Assuming that the farmer wants to make feed for their chickens using the Pearson Square method, they have to know the crude protein content of each of the ingredients used in feed making. The farmer may use whole maize (8.23 % DCP) Soya (45 % DCP) Omena (55 % DCP) and maize bran (7 % DCP) Sunflower (35 % DCP). To make a 70 kg bag of feed for layers, a farmer would require the following ingredients:
34 kg of whole maize
12 kg of Soya
8 kg of omena
10 kg of maize bran
6 kg of Lime (as a calcium source)
Each category of chickens has its  own requirements in terms of nutrition. For example, feed for layers should have at least 18 per cent crude protein. If one were to formulate feed for layers, then they would have to calculate the percentage of digestible crude protein in each of the ingredients to ensure that the total crude protein content is at least 18 per cent to meet this nutritional requirement.

To find out if the feed meets this standard, a farmer can do a simple calculation as follows:
Whole maize = 34 kg x 8.23 ÷100 = 2.80 kg
Soya bean = 12 kg x 45 ÷ 100 = 5.40 kg
Omena = 8 kg x 55 ÷ 100 = 4.40 kg
Maize bran = 10 kg x 7 ÷ 100 = 0.70 kg
Lime = 6 kg x 0 ÷ 100 = 0.00 kg
(Total crude protein 13.30 kg)
To get the total crude protein content of all these ingredients in a 70 kg bag, you take the total crude protein content of the combined ingredients, divide by 70 and multiply by 100 thus, (13.30÷70) x 100 = 19.0 %. This shows that the crude protein percentage in the above feed formulation is 19.0 % which is suitable for layers. Before mixing the feed, whole maize including the other ingredients has to be broken into the right sizes through crushing or milling to make it palatable for the chickens. Add 250 g of table salt on every 70 kg bag of feed.

Ex2 Feed for chickens meant for meat.
Chickens meant for meat production require feed with a higher content of DCP. From the first to the fourth week, the chicks require feed with a DCP content of between 22 to 24 percent. From the fourth to the eighth week, the chicks require feed with a protein content of 21 to 22 per cent crude protein. To attain this requirement, farmers can formulate feed using the same method given above. To make a 70 kg bags of feed, they will need to have all the right the ingredients in the proportions given below:
Whole maize = 40 kg x 8.23 ÷ 100 = 3.20 kg
Omena = 12 kg x 55 ÷ 100 = 6.60 kg
Soya beans = 14 kg x 45 ÷ 100 = 6.30
kg Lime = 4 kg x 0 ÷ 100 = 0.00 kg (Total crude protein 16.10 kg)
To determine if a 70 kg bag of feed has adequate crude protein content for birds meant for meat production, the same methods is used: (16. 10 ÷ 70) x 100 = 23 %. The feed given in this example has a total crude protein content of 23 % which is adequate to feed chicken in this category. In every 70 kg bag of feed, add 250g of table salt.
Ration for kienyeji chickens

Indigenous chickens are less productive in terms of egg and meat increase. They may not require intensive feeding and management.
For this category of chickens, farmers can constitute feeds with a DCP of between 15 – 16 %. They can use the following formulation to make feeds for the indigenous chickens:
Whole maize = 33 kg x 8.23 ÷100 = 2.70 kg
Maize or wheat bran = 14 kg x 7 ÷ 100 = 0.98 kg
Omena = 7 kg x 55 ÷ 100 = 3.85 kg
Soya = 7 kg x 45 ÷ 100 = 3.15 kg
Lime = 5 kg x 0 ÷ 100 = 0.00 kg
(Total crude protein 10.68 kg)
Percentage of total crude Protein in the ingredients = (10.68 ÷70) x 100 = 15.25 %
For farmers rearing hybrid layers and broilers, it is advisable to buy already constituted feeds from reputable companies that sell quality feed. The main reason is that it is very difficult for farmers to constitute micronutrients such as  amino-acids, trace minerals, fat and water soluble vitamins that these breeds of chicken require for proper growth.
To be sure that their feed is of the right quality, farmers can send a sample of the constituted feeds for testing and advice to KARI Naivasha, which has modern equipment for testing feed quality.

LIME: Can be sourced from hardware shops

A sample costs Ksh 1,000 to test.

Send samples by courier to the following address:

KARI Naivasha P.O. Box 25, 20117 Naivasha,

Tel. 0726 264 032.

*Results are ready within a day.
Some tips on how to feed chicken An egg-laying chicken requires 130 g of feed per day (provide clean water at all times).
1 chick requires 2.2 kg of feed for 8 weeks (thus 100 chicks = 2.2 kg x 100=220 kg. Chicks should be allowed to feed continuously and given adequate clean water at all times). If they finish their daily rations, give them fruit and vegetables cuttings to feed on.
1 pullet (young chicken about to
start laying) should be fed 4.5 kg of feed for two and a half months until the first egg is seen. It should then be put on layer diet. Supplement with vegetables, edible plant leaves or fruits peelings in addition to the daily feed rations.
All ingredients used must be of
high quality and palatable. Never
use rotten maize (Maozo). Chickens are very susceptible to aflatoxins poisoning.
When using omena as an
ingredient, ensure it is free of sand and seashells.

*Article Adopted from

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February 25, 2014 Leave a comment


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Kilome Mineral Water

February 18, 2014 Leave a comment

Mineral water in dry ukambani? I would have also doubted until I moved around with locals during dry seasons.
Some areas in Kenya are wet most of the year thereby providing running streams or rivers for life to continue, however in drier regions nature has provided a solution. Drier regions reserve their waters in sands and underground aquifers that slowly release the water in the form of springs filtered through porous rocks.


Its release can be slow but consistant and where protected by communities this water has a very unique taste!
*(Should kilome’s  residents bottle ‘kilome’s spring waters’ fortified  with natural sweatness of kilomes mineral rocks?)
Journeys to these springs can also be adventurous to both those drawing water and to the animals accompanying them :) 

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Strange creature in Kilome

February 11, 2014 Leave a comment

Over the past 4 years I’ve covered & discovered a lot in this “African backyard” just 100kms south of Nairobi and its Airport. However non of that prepared me for this


Sited in water (muddy) was this creature almost invisible! Were it not for something nudging me to keep looking that I saw tiny movement, and as I got closer ooh, a jet of water shot at me from the anus


It then nudged itself to almost invisibility in the shallow pool.
1/2 hour later with persistance and patience was an even bigger surprise :) travelar ants aka siafu. But instead of seeking safety like everything else (me included) it takes a leap and bites off a piece


What is this?

I observed them for 3 months without change in body shape or size.

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Oil (please don’t come prospecting here)

February 3, 2014 Leave a comment


• 3000 BC Sumerians used asphalt as an adhesive while Eqyptians use pitch to grease chariot wheels, and Mesopotamians use bitumen to seal boats

• 600 BC Confucius writes about drilling a 100’ gas well and using bamboo for pipes

• 1500 AD Chinese dig oil wells >2000’ deep

• 1847 First “rock oil” refinery in England

• 1849 Canada distills kerosene from crude oil

• 1856 World’s first refinery in Romania

• 1857 Flat-wick kerosene lamp invented

• 1913 Gulf Oil opens first drive-in filling station


Samuel M. Kier, a native of southwestern Pennsylvania, was the first person to refine crude oil. In the mid-1840s, he became aware of crude oil through his salt business. Occasionally, wells drilled for salt water would produce foul-smelling petroleum alongside the brine. For many in the salt business, the oil was a nuisance, and they were content to burn it or allow it to run off into nearby waterways. However, Kier was an entrepreneur, and he believed that he could turn the oily by-product of his salt wells into something of value.

Kier first used the flammable oil produced by his salt wells to light his salt works at night. The burning crude produced an awful smell and a great deal of smoke. Nevertheless, Kier was able to light his business without paying for an expensive illuminant like whale oil. Next, Kier packaged pure crude oil in half-pint bottles for sale as a medicine. A bottle of Kier’s Petroleum sold for 50 cents.


First Attempts Attempts at commercializing Oil

Kier knew crude oil would burn and thought that it could make a good and inexpensive lamp oil. However, the smell and smoke that burning oil produced made it hard to sell as an illuminant. In 1849, Kier took samples of his crude oil to Philadelphia where they were analyzed by Professor James C. Booth, a chemist. Booth agreed that crude oil could be used for illumination, but that it needed to be distilled or refined to get the best burning fluid. Thus, in 1850, Kier started experimenting with distillation and became the first person in the U.S. to attempt to use liquid petroleum as a starting material to produce lamp oil. His refining experiments were successful and by 1851, Kier produced a product called Carbon Oil, a fuel oil which burned with little smoke and odor. He sold his Carbon Oil for $1.50 a gallon.

In partnership with John T. Kirkpatrick, Kier created the first U.S. petroleum refinery in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania


In the early days of the oil industry, the methods for refining oil were very different than the methods we use today. People like Samuel M. Kier used horizontal cylindrical stills that only held 5 to 6 barrels of oil at a time. Using the stills, refiners were able to raise the temperature of the oil very slowly. As the temperature rose, they removed the distillates like gasoline for which they had no use, procuring only the lamp oil or kerosene



MODERN REFINING(fractional distillation).

This process separates the different components of crude oil so that they can be further refined.

Just as water goes from liquid to vapour at approximately 100°C, each type of hydrocarbon changes from liquid to vapor within a specific temperature range. In general, the more carbons in a molecule, the higher its boiling point. This allows for separation within the distilling process.

Fractional distillation begins when the crude oil, which is a mixture of different hydrocarbons, is put into a high-pressure steam boiler. This is a tank that makes the oil boil and turn to vapor, much like boiling water turns into water vapor. The crude oil is heated to temperatures up to 600° Celsius.

After the oil becomes vapor, it enters the bottom of the distillation column through a pipe. The distillation column is a tall tank that contains many plates or trays. The vapor rises in the column, cooling as it rises. The specific vapors cool at their boiling points and condense on the plates or trays in the column. Much like water condensation on the outside of a cold glass, the vapors turn into liquid fractions as they condense. The liquid fractions flow through pipes and are collected in separate tanks. The fractions include gases, naphtha, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, lubricating oils, heavy oils, and other materials.


There are different grades of crude oil, each with a specific composition determined by the original decomposed source materials as well as the properties of  the surrounding soil or rock formations. It can be light or heavy (referring to density) and sweet or sour (referring to its sulfur content).




Asphalt is commonly used to make roads. It is a colloid of asphaltenes and maltenes that is separated from the other components of crude oil by fractional distillation. Once sphalt is collected, it is processed in a de-asphalting unit, and then goes through a process called “blowing” where it is reacted with oxygen to make it harden. Asphalt is usually stored and transported at around 148.9° Celsius.


Diesel is any fuel that can be used in a diesel engine. Diesel is produced by fractional distillation between 200° Celsius and 350° Celsius. Diesel has a higher density than gasoline and is simpler to refine from crude oil. It is most commonly used in transportation.

Fuel Oil

Fuel oil is any liquid petroleum product that is burned in a furnace to generate heat. Fuel oil is also the heaviest commercial fuel that is produced from crude oil. The six classes of fuel oil are: distillate fuel oil, diesel fuel oil, light fuel oil, gasoil, residual fuel oil, and heavy fuel oil. Residual fuel oil and heavy fuel oil are known commonly as navy special fuel oil and bunker fuel; both of these are often called furnace fuel oil.


Almost half of all crude oil refined in the United States is made into gasoline. It is mainly used as fuel in internal combustion engines, like the engines in cars. Gasoline is a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and olefins, although the specific ratios of these parts depends on the refinery where the crude oil is processed. Gasoline refined beyond fractional distillation is often enhanced with iso-octane and ethanol so that it is usable in cars.

Gasoline is called different things in different parts of the world. Some of these names are: petrol, petroleum spirit, gas, petrogasoline, and mogas.


Kerosene is collected through fractional distillation at temperatures between 150° Celsius and 275° Celsius. It is a combustible liquid that is thin and clear. Kerosene is most commonly used as jet fuel and as heating fuel. In the early days of oil, kerosene replaced whale oil in lanterns. In the early 21st century, kerosene was used to power New York City Transit buses. Now, kerosene is used as fuel in portable stoves, kerosene space heaters, and in liquid pesticides.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Liquefied petroleum gas is a mixture of gases that are most often used in heating appliances, aerosol propellants, and refrigerants. Different kinds of liquefied petroleum gas, or LPG, are propane and butane. At normal atmospheric pressure, liquefied petroleum gas will evaporate, so it needs to be contained in pressurized steel bottles.

Lubricating Oil

Lubricating oils consist of base oils and additives. Mineral oils are manufactured by special processes called: solvent extraction, catalytic dewaxing, hydrocracking, and isohydromerization. Different lubricating oils are classified as paraffinic, naphthenic, or aromatic. Lubricating oils are used between two surfaces to reduce friction and wear.



BARREL OF CRUDE OIL PRODUCES (Product Gallons per Barrel)

Gasoline 19.4

Distillate Fuel Oil 9.7 (Includes both home heating oil and diesel fuel)

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuels 4.3

Coke 2.0

Residual Fuel Oil 1.9 (Heavy oils used as fuels in industry, marine transportation, and for electric power generation)

Liquefied Refinery Gases 1.9

Still Gas 1.8

Asphalt and Road Oil 1.4

Petrochemical Feedstocks 1.1

Lubricants 0.5

Kerosene 0.2

Other 0.4

(Source: API)

most commonly-known lubricating oil is motor oil, which protects moving parts inside an internal combustion engine.

Paraffin Wax

Paraffin wax is a white, odorless, tasteless, waxy solid at room temperature. The melting point of paraffin wax is between 42.2° C and 63.9° C, depending on other factors. It is an excellent electrical insulator, second only to Teflon®, a specialized product of petroleum. Paraffin wax is used in drywall to insulate buildings. It is also an acceptable wax used to make candles for the Jewish Menorah.


Bitumen, commonly known as tar, is a thick, black, sticky material. Refined bitumen is the bottom fraction obtained by the fractional distillation of crude oil. This means that the boiling point of bitumen is very high, so it does not rise in the distillation chamber. The boiling point of bitumen is 525° C. Bitumen is used in paving roads and waterproofing roofs and boats. Bitumen is also made into thin plates and used to soundproof dishwashers and hard drives in computers.


Petrochemicals are the chemical products made from the raw materials of petroleum. These chemicals include: ethylene, used to make anesthetics, antifreeze, and detergents; propylene, used to produce acetone and phenol; benzene, used to make other chemicals and explosives; toluene, used as a solvent and in refined gasoline; and xylene is used as a solvent and cleaning agent.


crude oil is the starting point for many diverse products such

-       clothes, threads, straps, shoe laces, plastic shoes, sandles, soles

-       medical  equipment,

-       electronics, plastics, cable coating, plastic casings

-       vitamin capsules, mask covers, medical gloves

-       tires, tubes, wheel burrow wheels, toy car wheels, trolley wheels


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