Agriculture 411

PART 1: FODDER SHRUBS for More MILK & Money for small scale farmers

*3kg of fodder shrub gives equivalent MILK of 1kg Dairy meal

(English)         (Kamba)
Mulberry.  – Kitae
Calliandra  – Muvuthu
Trichandra – kithi, Musemei, musewa, mung’ole, muaa

WHY PLANT FODDER SHRUBS?
Most small scale farmers feed their Dairy cows with inadequate & Low quality fodder resulting in low milk production. The above named shrubs can increase milk production (to maximize benefits plant & feed many Types of fodder shrubs)
This leads to
– saved time not collecting forage far away
– money saved from not buying commercial protein suppliments
– saved land as shrubs CAN be grown with food crops

WHERE TO PLANT FODDER SHRUBS
-along farm boundaries
-along soil conservation terraces/benches, to stabilize the soil
– around homesteads to provide privacy
– in napier plots

HOW TO PLANT FODDER SHRUBS
-Plant seedlings & cuttings at onset of rains
– Spacing 0.5mtrs
*Mulberry uses cuttings, the rest can be prepared in tree nursery from seeds or seedlings collected from under mother tree as rains begin
*Mulberry is shallow rooted & should not be planted next to food as it will compete with food crop

1 mature Cow needs about 500shrubs annually
1 Goat 100 shrubs annually

HOW TO MANAGE FODDER SHRUBS
– Harvest using sickle uniformly at about 3feet/1metre
– systematically harvest each shrub every 8-12weeks ie 4-6 cuttings/year
– Cut to 15cms after 6-7yrs to promote new growth
– apply manure every year on onset of rains
*To get Quality Seeds leave one shrub uncut after every 10metres.
*Ensure you have at least 30trees for seed
– For ease of seed harvesting maintain seed shrubs at about 2mtrs/6feet high

HOW TO FEED DAIRY COWS & GOATS
– harvest and feed 1part tree fodder(mix with protein rich materials) to every 3 parts of napier, maize, stovers or other grasses
– mix n chop then feed
– tree fodder can be harvested dried & stored as hay for dry season
3kg tree fodder will give about same milk yield as 1kg Dairy meal

OTHER BENEFITS OF FODDER SHRUBS
– good firewood
– forage for honey making bees
– Gives Stakes for tomatoes & climbing beans
– fallen leaves & roots improve soil quality
– produce good manure when fed to livestock

More info coming..

PART2.KENYA POULTRY FARMERS
ASSOCIATION (KEPOFA)
1. Information centre: inputs,
marketing, production, processing,
consumer
2. Trainning centre
3. Can KEPOFA help me in selling my
poultry products?
– it facilitates collective marketing by
members through linking them to
better markets
4. Indegenous chicken production
business
Tel: 020 2308976
Email: info@kenyapoultryfarmers.org

PART3
DRIP IRRIGATION KITS for VEGETABLES
1. Drum Kit:
– for 9m x 15m for 500 plants
– crop spacing 60cm x 30cm
* Gravity kit with filter, sub main, drip line, connectors & 200ltr drum
– place drum 1metre above planting surface

pricing:
code 1001:
drip kit without drum 7000/= or $95
code 1002:
Drip kit with drum 9000/= or $120

2. One Eighth Acre Kit
– filter, sub main, drip lines, 12mm connectors, 1000ltr tank
– irrigates 2500 plants (15m x 30m plot)
– spacing 60cm x 30cm

code 1003:
– eighth acre kit without tank 20,000/= or $270

code 1004:
eighth acre kit with tank 920/1000ltr 28,000/= or $375

KARI irrigation & Drainage Research Program/ Kenya soil survey
– Tel: 020 4444250
– email: irrigation@icconect.co.ke

GETTING THERE
Waiyaki way(kangemi route) just before Nairobi School
– By matatu: no23 from Odeon (alight agriculture stage)
*confirm current $ adjusted rates

Trapping Water for a Years use in shaggz:

https://kilome.wordpress.com/2012/05/27/water-is-not-the-issue-in-kilome/

Part 4 – Banana
BANANA GROWERS ASSOCIATION OF KENYA (BGAK) – Association for farmers
– training & Member of KENFAP
– access to markets
– clean healthy seedlings
– value addition (banana flour, banana wine, banana juice, banana crisps, banana chapati, banana cakes, banana animal feeds)
– establishment of demo sites

Tissue Culture Bananas
– 100 to 150/= for seedlings
– production 6-8tonnes/acre
– propagated not GMO
– Economic Viability: from 100 stools
– growth: 9-15 average

TYPES
1) Cooking varieties:
ngombe, nusu ngombe, kigame, kisii matoke, uganda green, solio

2)Ripening Varieties:
Grand nain, giant cavendish, williams hybrid, valery, chinese dwarf, kampala, Fhia 25 & 17 (dual purpose)

Planting:
-spacing 2.5×2.5mtrs or 3x3mtrs
– hole depth 3×3 feet
– fertilizer 1-2debes manure, 200grms NPK(western Kenya), 100grms DAP, 30grms nematicide per plant hole
– top dressing 100grms CAN/Urea every month after first 3months

BGAK CONTACTS
Tel: 0725 856481, 020 2180608
email: bananagrowerskenya@gmail.com
http://www.bgak.org

DRIP IRRIGATION FOR BANANAs
Quarter & Half Acre family orchard drip
– for bananas, passion & fruit trees
– includes filter, sub main, drip lines with 1-3 button drippers/tree
-spacing 2x3mtrs upto 360trees
– raise tank 3.5 metres above ground
code 1008: quarter acre kit minus tank 26000/= or $350
code 1009: half acre kit minus tank 50000/= or $670

confirm with KARI current $ adjusted rates
KARI: tel: 020 4444250 email: irrigation@iconnect.co.ke

*Trapping water for irrigation
https://kilome.wordpress.com/2012/05/27/water-is-not-the-issue-in-kilome/

Part 5 – Making Cheese from goat, sheep, horse, cow/camel milk

2. CHEESE MAKING
2.1 What is Cheese?
Most likely you will have
experienced that once you tried to boil milk that was slightly sour to the taste.
The result: the milk coagulated forcing the whey to separate from the curd. You probably did throw away the lot as “spoilt milk”.
If on the other hand, you had taken a “little trouble” and filtered the curd through a piece of clean, loosely knit white cloth (cheese cloth) or a sieve, the trapped curd is indeed “fresh cheese”. With a little salt added, the fresh cheese tastes real nice.
The fresh (curd) cheese, will like all fresh or raw foods spoil within a short time if not well preserved. To preserve the cheese, the fresh curd is often pressed to form a compact
mass, salted and stored under
special care to “ripen” through a
kind of fermentation for 4 to 8 weeks or more. This changes the body of the whitish creamy cheese card to a soft, mellow, yellowish coloured cheese body containing nutritious milk proteins, fat, vitamins and
minerals.
This manual introduces you to the art of making of a few types of ripened cheese.

2.2 How many types of cheese?
Broadly speaking there are two main types of cheese.

i) Those which are made through
coagulation of milk by acidification.
The acidification can be by direct
addition of an organic acid such as lemon juice or vinegar OR by
“natural acidification” through acid produced by milk lactic acid
bacteria. Most of such type of cheese is consumed “fresh” or “soft”, unpressed cheese.

ii) Cheese in which the milk is
coagulated by means of enzymes
(rennet).
The second type and the most
common, is that in which the milk is coagulated by means of enzymes extracted from the stomach of young calves or other sources.
Most of this type of cheese if often pressed into various shapes, salted and ripened into “semi-hard” or “hard types”. As with other types of foodstuffs, a variety of “preparation” recipes have resulted into thousands
of types of ripened cheeses
worldwide. Each type is best suited for the conditions under which it has evolved. In Kenya, experience has shown that Feta cheese, Pasta Filata cheese and semi-hard, Alpine types of cheeses (Gruyere, Gouda,
Tilsiter etc.) can he made under
farm or small scale processing
installations. The manufacture of
these three types will he described in detail in this Processing Guide.

2.3 Why, Where and When to make Cheese
In many parts of Kenya, some large- scale dairy farmers, produce and process milk on their farms into cheese. There is opportunity for small scale to medium scale milk processors to tap milk from remote
milk shed areas and process it into cheese of their choice.
For smallholder dairy co-operative societies, marketing milk as raw milk may not be the best option in terms of potential economic returns. Under appropriate conditions, which must be considered carefully, cheese making could earn them higher returns from their milk if they choose to process it into cheese.
Other factors to consider include the fact that, very often women have to walk long distances to the market
place to sell several litres of milk
everyday. Women can form co-
operative groups to collectively
market their milk. If 100 litres or more can be collected, this is a very heavy load-to be transported. 13 kg is milk solids with useful nutrients. The rest, 87 kg is water.
Through cheese production, the 100kg of milk is concentrated to about 10 kg, well preserved cheese requiring to be taken to the market only once a week. The rest of the milk whey can be fed to pigs or used in the preparation of “ugali” or “uji”
instead of using tap water.
Therefore, where a market for cheese exists good cheese making provides a means of improving:
– Marketability of milk surpluses.
– Preservation of valuable milk solids.
– Women’s workload in milk marketing.
– Farm income from dairy production.

Q3. HOW TO MAKE “PASTA FILATA” CHEESE

3.1 Materials and equipment

To be able to make a “Pasta Filata” type of cheese at the farmhouse or village level you will require the following:

a) Milk: from at least 100 litres to as much as 2000 lanes or more.
b) Rennet: in powder form or as
tablets or a local rennet substitute
(e.g. crude extract from goat kid or calf abomasa) may be used.
c) Charcoal stove or biogas burner for warming/heating the milk.
Where resources permit, an electrical hot water generator or water boiler or tunnel hot water boiler may be used.

Fig. 3.1: Improved “jiko” may be
used in pasteurising cheese milk in cans or special vats.

e) Various utensils such as: cheese vats, cheese buckets, cheese knives, thermometer, colander, wash basins and running water, cups, ladles,
sufurias etc.

f) Cheese moulds; select either
cylindrical or round.

g) Cheese curing room with
wooden shelves or small
cupboard.

Fig. 3.2: Some equipment required in cheese making.

3.2 Manufacturing steps

3.2.1. Milk standardization
Although whole milk may be used, it is recommended to use milk of 3% butterfat in making “Pasta Filata” cheese, This is achieved by separating part of the milk in a cream separator to remove cream.
The resulting skim milk is then
mixed with the rest of the milk to give cheese milk of about 3% BF.

Fig. 3.3 A hand driven cream
separator.

3.2.2. Heating the cheese milk
After standardising the milk, it is
put in a large container called a
“cheese vat”. The milk is heated by hot water surrounding the cheese vat. For small amounts of milk, water in a large aluminium sufuria (40 litres) may be used to heat milk
placed in a small sufuria (20 lines).
The water may be heated using a
charcoal store or biogas burner. The milk is heated to 35° C only.

Fig. 3.4 : Heating of cheese milk to 32 – 35ºC.

3.2.3 Starter culture addition

The next step is to add previously fermented lactic acid culture or sour milk at the rate of 1.5 to 2 litres per 100 litres of milk (0.3-0.4 litres per 20 litres cheese milk). Stir for 5 min. Leave undisturbed for 15 min.

Fig. 3.5 Addition of starter culture to the cheese milk. Stir well for 5 minutes.

3.2.4 Addition of rennet
While the milk is being let to ripen for 15 min., dissolve one tablet or rennet powder in a glass of clean water. Add a pinch of salt to the rennet solution. After ripening period, add the rennet solution to the cheese milk and stir (maintain a
temperature of 35° C). Leave
undisturbed.

Fig. 3.6 Adding and stirring-in
rennet.

3.2.5 Testing curd firmness
Stab the coagulum with the
forefinger and lift. If it breaks clean, the curd is ready for cutting. If it shatters, give it a little more time, then try again.

Fig. 3.7: A firm curd breaks
smoothly (left) without shattering (right).

3.2.6. Cutting the curd
By using a cheese knife, cut in two directions first towards yourself and secondly sideways to form squares of about 1cm wide. Thirdly cut at an angle across the vat (sufuria).

Fig. 3.8: Cutting the cheese releases the whey.

3.2 7. Stirring the curd
After cutting the curd with a knife wash your hand with soap and rinse in plenty of clean water. Stir the curd gentle with your hand for 15 min. Agitating from bottom up, break up the bigger pieces of curd with
your hand without crushing them.

Fig. 3.9: Clean hands may be used to stir small quantities of curd.

3.2.8. Curd ripening Let the curd settle and remove some whey. Let the curd ferment (ripen)
for 2 to 4 hrs. Maintain the
temperature at 36°C if using sour milk as starter culture and 42°C if using a yoghurt starter culture.
Raise the temperature gradually by adding in hot water.

Fig. 3.10: The curd settles down
daring “ripening”.

3.2.9. Curd spinning ability test
In order to know whether the curd has reached a point where it can be made to be elastic, it is necessary to conduct a spinning ability test.

i) Using a laddle scoop out a few
curds and immerse in boiling water.
ii) Mould the curd like a chewing
gum and try to stretch it.
iii) If the curd breaks, then it
is not yet ready. Leave
undisturbed for a few more
minutes (5 to 10) before trying
the test again.
iv) On a further trial, if the
curd stretches like chewing
gum, then it is ready for
moulding.

Fig. 11 a-c: Curd spinning ability
test.

3.2 10. Cutting the curd
Scoop the matted curd from the
bottom of the cheese vat and cut it to small portions on a wooden tray placed in a slanted position.

Fig. 3.12: Cut the curd on a slanted table to facilitate whey drainage.

3.2.11. Moulding the cheese

i. After cutting the cheese into
small pieces, put about 1/2 to
1 kg of the cheese in a basin
of hot water (80 – 90°C). Have
a bucket of cold water ready
nearby.
ii. Stir the cheese curds in the
hot water basin until it looks
like a bread dough.

Fig. 3.13: Place the curd in hot
water (> 80°C) to melt it.

iii. Mould the gummy curd
into a ball
iv. Pull the open end together
and cut off the loose piece.
v. Immerse the cut end into
the hot water basin to seal off
and smoothen the surface
vi. Smoothen off all the cheese’s
surface.

Fig. 13 a-c: Moulding the molten,
cheese curd to a compact mass.

vii. Place the cheese in plastic
moulds cut out of a 4″ (for 1/2
Kg cheese)or a 6″ plastic pipe
(for l kg cheese).

Fig: 3.14: Smoothen the cheese
surface to seal off holes.

3.2.12. Cooling the cheese
After staying in the moulds for about 15 minutes, the cheese balls can be transferred into a bucket of clean tap water to cool down.

Fig. 3.15: Cool the worm cheeses in cold water to firm the body.

3.2.13. Brining the cheese
After cooling in water for about one hour, the cheese is removed from the plastic mould and placed overnight in salt water containing 1kg salt per 10 litres of water.

Fig. 3.16: Brining gives the cheese a good taste.

3.2.14. Ripening the cheese
The cheese is placed on wooden
shelves and turned once every day.

Fig. 3.17: The cheese is ripened for 10 -14 days.

i. After several days, moulds will
have started to grow on the
cheese surface. The cheese
and the wood surface should
be cleaned everyday with a
clean piece of cloth or soft
brush soaked in brine.
ii. Wipe all surfaces dry and turn
over the cheese.

Fig. 3.18: Cleaning and turning
daily is essential.

3.2.15. Marketing the cheese
“Pasta Filata” cheese will be ready for sale at least 10 days after manufacture. The cheese should have a yellow and soft body. Before delivering to a shop or any consumer, clean the cheese thoroughly and place in clean cartons lined with plastic or white plain paper. Never use old newspaper for wrapping cheese.

Fig. 3.19: A good marketing
strategy is crucial for success.

3.2.16. Utilization of Filata Cheese

Pasta Filata type of cheese is a
cooked cheese. Therefore it does not develop strong flavour during ripening. When properly handled a semi-hard cheese with a soft body and a very mild, pleasant flavour results.

a. The cheese can be cut to small
pieces and eaten with bread.
b. It is particularly suitable for
use as cooking cheese as it
can be grated and used with
spaghetti or macaroni, as a
salad dressing or used in pizza
preparation.
One kilo of cheese has similar
nutritive value to one kilo of meat or eight litres of milk.

Fig. 3.20: Pasta filata (Mozzarella)
cheese is delicious and nutritious.

4. HOW TO MAKE “ALPINE”
FARMHOUSE CHEESE
The production of “Alpine cheese” as described here represents a family of
semi-hard cheese, which originated in the mountainous region of Switzerland and France. It was traditionally made under farm household conditions. Cheeses such as Gruyere, Gouda and Tilsiter can be made with minor modification using the “recipe” described hereunder:

4.1 Materials and equipment
To be able to make “Alpine”
Farmhouse cheese on a small scale you will require the following:

a. Milk: from at least 100 litres to as much as 500 litres or more.
b. Rennet: in powder form or as
tablets or a local rennet
substitute (e.g. crude extract
from calf or kid abomasum or
adult sheep, goat or cattle
abomasum)
c. Charcoal stove or biogas
burner for heating the milk.
d. Starter culture: usually one
that grows well at ambient
temperature and of high gas
producing ability (necessary for
formation of holes in the
cheese).

Fig. 4.l: Some materials required
for cheese making.

e. Various utensils: cheese
vat, buckets, cheese knife,
thermometer, colander, wash
basin, running water, jugs,
ladles, sufurias, cheese moulds, cloths.
f. Press: a simple cheese press such as shown here can be easily made and used in pressing the cheese.

Fig. 4.2: A lever press may be made locally

g. Cheese curing room with
wooden shelves or a small
cupboard with, a temperature
of 17° C to not more than
24°C and relative humidity of
at least 80%.

CAUTION: The low temperatures
required mean that this type of
cheese can only be successfully
made in the highland areas of E.
Africa (> 1700 m.a.s.l.).

4.2. Manufacturing steps

4.2.1. Milk prey
Alpine farmhouse cheese is usually prepared from whole milk but standardised milk of not less than 3% butterfat may be used.
Whichever milk is used, it mast first be filtered through a clean cloth or strainer to remove all physical dirt.

4.2.2. Heating the cheese milk
After filtering the milk into the
cheese vat or sufuria, heat the milk by putting it into a larger vessel containing water which is heated cover a charcoal or biogas burner.
Heat the milk while stirring gently to 65° C and maintain at that temperature for 30minutes.

Fig. 4.3: Pasteurising cheese milk
ensures consistent quality

4.2.3. Cooling the milk
After 30 min holding at 65°C, place the hot milk vessel in a larger vessel containing cold water. Stir the milk to hasten cooling. Change the cooling water several times if it gets
too warm. The milk should be cooled to and maintained at 35°C.

Fig. 4.4: Rapid cooling is obtained
by placing in a water jacket.

4.2.4. Starter culture Addition
Neat add a well-ripened starter
culture at the rate of 2 % i.e 2 litres per 100 litres cheese milk. Stir gently for 5 min. Cover and leave undisturbed for 30 minutes.

Fig. 4.5: Add starter cultures while stirring.

4.2.5. Renneting
Add rennet according to suppliers instructions but ensure you add sufficient such that coagulation of the milk takes place in about 30minutes.
Too much rennet may cause
bitterness in the cheese while too little will take long to coagulate milk and the curd will be weak with subsequent high losses in the whey.

Fig. 4.6: Add rennet while stirring.

4.2.6 Testing curd firmness
To check whether the curd is ready for cutting, dip your forefinger and lift gently. If the curd breaks clean then it is ready for cutting. If it shatters give it a few uses mace and
neat the test.

Fig 4.7: If the curd shatters (right), it is not ready for cutting.

4.2.7. Cutting the curd Once the curd firmness is satisfactory using a long knife, cut the curd vertically in one direction
and then across at 1/2 inch inters.
Lastly the curd is cut at an angle
across the vessels. Leave the cut
curds for 10 min to allow initial whey separation.

Fig. 4.8: Cutting the curd uniformly releases whey.

4.2.8 Stirring and cooking the curd Stir the curd for 10 min while cutting the larger cubes with a knife. Remove some whey and warm it to 50(C and use it to raise the temperature of the curd slowly at the rate of 1°C in every 5 minutes until the temperature of the curds is
38ºC in about 30 minutes.

4.2.9. Further cooking of the curd and testing curd firmness
Continue stirring at 38(C
intermittently for another 30
minutes. While stirring the curd,
pick a few curds in your hand and
press together. When the curds do not stick together but are firm to the touch with rubbery texture, they are by then well “cooked”.

4.2.10. Draining the whey
Once the curds are sufficiently firm, whey is drained off by either decanting, scooping or pouring through some cheese cloth.

4.2.11. Pressing the curd
Put the curds in a cylindrical mould (such as a 3 litre plastic bucket in whose bottom and sidewalls, 3mmholes have been drilled) until it is full. Cover with a piece of cheese cloth. Cover with a fitting wooden follower. Place the cheese press cover in position and put on 10 kg weight for a 1 kg cheese.
After one hour of initial pressing the cheese are turned by quickly flipping the moulds over. Replace the cheese in the moulds upside down. The weight is increased to 15 to 20 kg per 1 kg cheese weight and the cheese is pressed overnight.

Fig. 4.9: Simple lever press may be used to press the cheese.

4.2.12. Salting the cheese
After removing the cheese farm the mould, place the cheese in brine water containing 15 – 20% common salt. A good way of checking the right concentration of the brine, is to add salt to the water until an egg or Irish potato can float in it. Place the cheese in the brine for 12 hours.
The cheese will take more salt the more they stay in the brine. Smaller cheese (e.g.500 g) may require shorter time (6 – 8 hours) to absorb same concentration of salt as the big
cheese (1-2 kg) will absorb in 12
hours. With experience you will
learn to keep each cheese just long enough for the right salt level in the final cheese.

Fig. 4.10: Salting by brine gives
uniform salt distribution in the
cheese .

4.2.13. Curing the cheese
After removing the cheese from the brine water, the cheese is placed on wooden shelves in a curing room or cabinet.

Fig. 4.11: A cool, clean ripening
room is important for good quality cheese.
The cheese is turned once every day for the first 4 a 5 days. In high altitude areas (1700 m) lower and more stable temperatures (17-22° C)
and higher humidity may be more easily attained in underground cellars (3-4 m) below ground.
After 1 week the cheese may be
turned every other day and wiped with a strong salt solution to remove the moulds. The wooden shelves should also be thoroughly cleaned with brine and occasionally scrubbed
with hot water and let dry before
replacing the cheese. Strive to keep the surface of the cheese as clean as possible. The cheese is usually ripe in 6-8 weeks.

5. HOW TO MAKE FETA CHEESE
Feta cheese belongs to the so-called “white pickled” group of cheeses. In Greece, where this type of cheese originates, it has traditionally been made from sheep milk. Nowadays and in many parts of the world, Feta
cheese is made from cow milk whose fat content has been adjusted to 3%
. In East Africa in several localities with a strong Greek influence, Feta cheese is being manufactured under relatively simple conditions utilising
common equipments. Due to its high salt content, it can keep for up to 1 year in 15 %salt brine. Thus its manufacturing steps are described here in detail.

5.1 Materials and equipment
To be able to make Feta cheese at the farmhouse or village level you will require the following:

a. Milk: from at least 100 litres to up to 500 litres or more.
b. Rennet: in powder farm or as
tablets or a local rennet substitute (e.g. crude extract
from calf abomasum or those
of adult cattle, sheep, or goats
may be used).
c. Fuel wood store or tunnel
boiler for warming/heating the
milk.

Fig. 5.1: Some materials required for cheese making.

d. Starter culture: a lactic
starter culture or a well
fermented sour milk may be
used with satisfaction.
e. Various such as: cheese vats, buckets, cheese knives,thermometer, colander, wash
basins, running water, cups,
ladles, sufurias, cheese cloth
etc.
Cheese moulds: for this type of
cheese, square moulds are ideal.

Fig. 5.2: Simple wooden cheese
moulds may be used

f. Cheese curing brine vessels
such as plastic buckets, used
cooking oil tins (need to be
changed frequently due to
corrosion) or day pots may be
used.

5.2 Manufacturing steps for Feta

5.2.1 Milk standardisation
Since Feta cheese has traditionally been made from sheep milk, milk fat must be standardised to 3 % to obtain Feta of good quality from cow
milk. Hence milk separation to
obtain skim milk to be used for
reducing the fat.
Adjustment of the fat content of the cheese milk is the first step in Feta cheese production from cow milk.
(seek further advice on how to
standardise milk to fat content).

5.2.2 Heating the cheese milk
After standardising the milk, it is
put in a large container known as
“vat” . The milk is heated by hot
water contained is a lamer vessel.
For small amp of milk, water in a
lace aluminium sulfur (40 litres)
maybe used to heat milk placed in a small sufuria (20 litres).The water may be heated using an improved wood fuel stone tunnel water boiler or biogas burner The milk is bated
to 35 °C only.

Fig. 5.3 Pasteurise milk for safe,
good quality cheese.

5.2.3 Starter cultureaddition
Sour milk or a lactic starter culture may both be used with satisfactory results About litres of starter is added for each 100 litres of cheese rapt well for about min and allow to ripen for 30 min.

5.2.4 Addition of Rennet
While the milk is left to ripen for 30 min, dissolve one tablet (for 100litres milk) or an appropriate measure of powder in a little water.
Add a pinch of salt to the rennet
solution. After the ripening period (30 minutes) is over, add the rennet solution to the cheese milk (maintained at temperature of 32-35° C) and stir for 5 min. Replace the lid of the cheese vat and leave
undisturbed until coagulation occurs in 30-45 minutes.
5.2.5 Testing curd firmness
When a coagulation has formed, stab it with the forefinger or knife and lift. If it breaks clean, then the curd is ready for cutting. If it shatters give it a little more time.

Fig. 5.4: Ensuring the curd is firm
before cutting is important for
good cheese yield.

5.2.6 Cutting the curd
When coagulation shows a clean
break it is ready for cutting. By
using a long knife, cut the curd in
two directions; first towards yourself and secondly sideways to form square of abort 2 – 3 cm wide.
Thirdly cut at an angle across the
vat or sufuria. After cutting leave
the curds undisturbed for same 15minutes. A yellowish green whey begins to separate.

Fig. 5.5: Cutting the curd release whey.

After letting the curds settle for 15minutes, decant some of the whey.
Scoop out the curds and place in
square cheese moulds lined with
cheese cloth. Place the lid on the
mould. Invert after 1 hr and allow whey to drain overnight.

Fig. 5.6: Use shallow (4″ deep)
square moulds.

5.2.8 Cutting the cheese blocks
On the morning of the following day, cut the cheese block into small pieces (e.g 2cm x 5cm or 5cm x 10cm) and sprinkle them with salt.
Fig. 5.7: Cut the cheeses into small portions for brining.
5.2.9 Brining and storage of Feta
cheese
After 1 – 2 hrs the cheese pieces are immersed in 15% salt solution whereby it will absorb salt at the rate of 6-8% of its weight. For prolonged storage it is advisable to seal the containers. This will prevent, the growth of salt tolerant molds. Under such conditions the
cheese will keep well for up to 1
year.
Fig. 5.8: Feta cheese may be stored in brine for up to 6 months.

5.2.10 Feta cheese utilisation
Because of the high salt content,
Feta cheese may be desalted by
placing it in clean water for a few
hours and dressed in table cream before consumption. Alternatively the cheese may be ripened in brine containing 7-8% salt instead of 15% if it is not intended to keep the cheese for too long.
Feta cheese may be used for pizza, sandwich and on macaroni or salad.

REFERENCES:
O’ MAHONY F. 1985. ILCA manual No. 4. Rural Dairy Technology; Experience from Ethiopia.

ANNEX:
CHEESE MILK QUALITY REQUIREMENTS AND ADJUSTMENTS
1. Milk Quality:
Cheese milk should be of good
composition as this influences most of the consumer preferred
characteristics e.g. texture, body,
flavour and aroma in the cheese.
Some fat is especially required to avoid hard and leathery
characteristics in ripened
cheeses.Milk used in cheese making should be fresh and of low microbial load; acidification affects processability and quality of final cheese.
Cheese milk should be free from
contaminants such as antibiotics,
sanitizing agents, detergents and
other inhibitors which affect
processability by destroying cultures and affect rennet coagulability:

Annex. Fig: l: Common cheese
defects: Cracks (pal, excessive eye formation (9) and compact mass (p5)

2 Filtration and Clarification:
Cheese milk should be well filtered in order to remove the physical impurities and debris which affect cheese quality.

Pasteurisation:
Cheese milk should be well filtered in order to remove the physical impurities and debris which affect cheese quality.

3. Pasteurisation:
Cheese milk should be pasteurised in order to meet the following requirements:

a. Kill disease causing microbes
(pathogenes) hence safeguard
health of the cheese consumer.
b. ii) Kill spoilage microbes (e g.
coliforms, yeasts, sporeforming
bacteria) which cause “blowing” and bitter defects of cheese through unwanted fermentations.
c. iii) Inactivate natural
inhibitors which affect cheese
processing.

NOTE: Overheating of cheese milk should however, be avoided as it results in processing difficulties e.g. delayed rennet coagulation and weak delicate curds due to insolubilization of calcium salts required in the coagulation process.

4. Thermization:
Long chilling of milk leads to
insolubilization calcium ions, but
they are required in their soluble form in rennet cheese manufacture.
To make them soluble again,
moderate heating (Thermization) of chilled milk is required.
Thermization involves heating of the chilli milk at 65° C/15 seconds in order to convert the insoluble calcium ions to the soluble form for proper coagulation using rennet:

5. Additives in cheese milk:
Calcium chloride (CaCl2):
It is added at the rate of 10 – 20
grams per 100 litres of milk (or
0.02% maximum ) to restore the
calcium level changed during
handling and heating processes.
Correct calcium level is required for proper coagulation using rennet.
Sodium or Potassium nitrate/nitrite (KNO3/NaNO3 or KNO2/NaNO2)
It is added at the rate of 10 – 20
grams, per 100 litres milk (or 0.02%maximum) to prevent growth of gas producing spoilage microbes e.g. coliforms (which cause blowing of young cheese) and spore forming bacteria (which cause blowing of aged cheese and bitter taste).

Annex Fig. 2: Cheese blowing
defects.

6. Colour additives
Carotene or Anatto are the main
colour additives added in cheese
milk at the rate of 0.06% maximum to impart the desirable yellowish colour of cheese hence even out colour variations especially during the dry season when the green fodder (a source of yellow pigments in mills) is not available.

7. Starter culture:
A starter culture in cheese making is a medium of harmless, active micro organisms which by growing in cheese milk and curd assists the development of mature cheese with desirable characteristics of flavour, aroma, pH, texture and body.
The choice of starter will depend on:

i) Type of cheese
ii) Activity required of it e.g.
propionic acid development, gas
production, lactic acid production, lipolysis etc
iii) Cooking temperature to be used. (influenced by type of cheese) e.g. where cooking temperature to be used is 38 – 40 C, a thermophilic starter is preferred; while for 32 – 45°C, a mesophilic starter is preferred.
Mixed starters are preferred due to:
1. Resistance to bacteriophage
attack
2. Good adaptation to environmental characteristics of temperature, pH, salt concentration etc.
Starter is added at the rate of 1 –
3% of the quantity of cheese milk.

6. Colour additives
Carotene or Anatto are the main
colour additives added in cheese
milk at the rate of 0.06% maximum to impart the desirable yellowish colour of cheese hence even out colour variations especially during the dry season when the green fodder (a source of yellow pigments in mills) is not available.

7. Starter culture:
A starter culture in cheese making is a medium of harmless, active micro organisms which by growing in cheese milk and curd assists the development of mature cheese with desirable characteristics of flavour, aroma, pH, texture and body.
The choice of starter will depend on:
i) Type of cheese
ii) Activity required of it e.g.
propionic acid development, gas
production, lactic acid production, lipolysis etc
iii) Cooking temperature to be used. (influenced by type of cheese) e.g. where cooking temperature to be used is 38 – 40 C, a thermophilic starter is preferred; while for 32 – 45°C, a mesophilic starter is preferred.
Mixed starters are preferred due to:
1. Resistance to bacteriophage
attack
2. Good adaptation to environmental characteristics of temperature, pH, salt concentration etc.
Starter is added at the rate of 1 –
3% of the quantity of cheese milk.

8. Milk coagulants.
Organic acids:
1. Direct addition of an external
edible acid like lemon juice, vinegar, citric acid etc. into hot fresh milk to cause curd separation from whey e.g. in lemon cheese rung.
2. Acidification of cheese milk by
inoculation of a lactic starter culture into pasteurised milk. Fermentation of the milk sugar (lactose) will result in production of lactic acid and coagulation of milk proteins leading to formation of curd and separation of whey.

Enzymes (Rennet)
Commercial rennet is supplied in
two forms:
i) Powder
ii) Tablets
Addition in cheese milk for good
coagulation is at the rate of 2.5
grams per 100 litres of cheese milk.
The rennet should be diluted at
least 10 times in clean cold water.
Where commercial rennet is not
available, one can make his/her own rennet from the abomasum of cattle,sheep or goats.

Part6: PEANUTS/GROUNDNUTS (Growing, Processing, & Intnl. Market contacts)

*Some Local Peanut dishes by country*

Burundi

elephant soup , beef and greens in peanut sauce, ngege with peanut sauce, ribs and aubergine in peanut sauce, bean soup

China

Chinese noodles in peanut sauce ,old vinegar peanuts, Chinese peanut cookies , orange chicken with peanuts , pig’s tail and peanut soup, Sichuan-style stir-fried chicken with peanuts
, spicy peanut sauce, Chinese
peanut chicken and noodles, sweet peanut cream, kung pao chicken, Chinese New Year chocolate candy

Congo

Congo chicken moambe ,
Congolese chicken with peanuts, groundnut stuffing, Congo tofu, peanut mousse, sweet oranges Congo, domodah, kwem, liboké de viande

Eritrea

tsebhi shiro , ngege with peanut
sauce, ribs and aubergine in peanut sauce

Ethiopia

dabo kolo (little fried snacks ), dorowat (Ethiopian chicken) , chicken in peanut-tomato sauce, green beans and peanuts, ngege with peanut sauce, ribs and aubergine in peanut sauce

Guyana

peanut and vegetable sauce, peanut biscuits, peanut brittle , peanut punch, peanut soup , Guyanese dundee cake

Kenya

kunde, mixed greens, cold avocado soup, Kenyan peanut and meatball casserole
, ngege with peanut sauce, ribs and aubergine in peanut sauce
Laos sousi pa (fish with coconut cream) , stuffed chicken with nutty cinnamon rice

*
image

peanut butter crusher/blender – 50kgs/45minute 42000,
peanut decoaticator 59000 – 0720462982/Egerton*

0- Peanut 101
http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/docs.htm?docid=2999&page=1

1- Groundnut seed production in semi arid regions (600-900mm rainfall)
http://www.icrisat.org/Publications/EBooksOnlinePublications/Publications-2008/Ground_seedproduction_English.pdf

2- Technologies to improve peanut production & processing 2014:
http://www.caes.uga.edu/commodities/fieldcrops/peanuts/pins/documents/2014PeanutTourHotTopicsKemerait.pdf

3. Health and Nutrition
Peanuts contain approximately 21
– 36% protein (Peanuts)
Peanuts are naturally cholesterol- free Peanuts and peanut butter are more inexpensive than other sources of protein, such as, meats and cheeses Peanuts and peanut butter are good sources of many essential vitamins and minerals
Peanuts and peanut butter are a
good source of folic acid 2-3 servings of peanuts can help
reduce LDL cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease
( http://www.peanut-institute.org/11-22-99_GoodFatPeanut_PR.html )
Peanuts can also inhibit growth
of certain cancers
( http://www.peanut-institute.org/4-19-99_Phytosterol_PR.html )
source: http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/docs.htm?docid=2999&page=11

4. Groundnut seed production:
(click link to download book) http://www.icrisat.org/Publications/EBooksOnlinePublications/Publications-2008/Ground_seedproduction_English.pdf

5. Overview World Market:
(click link to download report) http://www.agrisk.umn.edu/Conf05/uploads/NSmith09.pdf

6- Peanut Grower Magazine
http://www.peanutgrower.com/home/index.stm#

7:a Post harvest
http://unapcaem.org/Activities%20Files/A20/10%20Philippines.pdf

7b- Companies using peanuts & the peanut products they make:

Snacks, Cereals, Cooking/Baking , Ice Cream , Peanut Butter,
Energy Bars/Health Food , Refrigerated/Frozen Foods

McKee Foods Corporation
The Hershey Co. , Kraft Foods Inc. , Frito-Lay, Inc. , J.M. Smucker Co.
Kroger Co. , PepsiCo , General Mills Hain Celestial Group, Inc, The Hershey Co. , Unilever Nestlé, Good Karma Foods, Inc.

8- Processing peanuts
http://www.nmfpchhattisgarh.in/pp/04%20Oilseed%20Based%20Products/09%20Peanut%20Processing.pdf
http://www.gmaonline.org/downloads/technical-guidance-and-tools/Industry_Handbook_for_Safe_Processing_of_Nuts_1st_Edition_22Feb10.pdf
-http://www.peanutsusa.com/phocadownload/GMPs/2009%20APC%20GMP%20BP%20Chapter%207%20Peanut%20Product%20Manufacturers%2016%20Nov%2009%20Final%20Edit.pdf
http://www.naturland.de/fileadmin/MDB/documents/Publication/English/peanuts.pdf
http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/1450-8109/2011/1450-81091101037G.pdf
http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/1450-8109/2011/1450-81091101037G.pdf
http://www.npi.gov.au/sites/www.npi.gov.au/files/resources/ae8fdc1a-d7ba-d894-f543-0fabb5c53497/files/fsnack.pdf

9- Some Bulk buyers contacts

Chick-fil-A
5200 Buffington Road
Atlanta, GA 30349
Phone: 404-305-4856
Fax

Kar’s Nuts
1200 East Fourteen Mile Road
Madison Heights, MI
Phone: 248-588-1903
Fax: 248-588-1902

Mars Snackfood USA
P.O.Box 3289
Albany, GA 31706
Phone: 229-434-4807
Fax: 229-434-4812
Nutco, Inc.
30 Citizen Court
Markham, ON L6G1C4
Phone: 905-946-8277
Fax: 905-946-8284

Tara Foods/The Kroger Co.
1900 Cowles Avenue
Albany, GA 31705
Phone: 229-431-1350
Fax: 229-439-1458

(remember to work with your nearest Ministry of Trade office to help secure your trade/export products

– remember ALL export markets have Standards to be met 🙂

*important read: http://www.fdli.org/docs/default-document-library/food-peanut—combined—done.pdf?sfvrsn=0

PART6: LINKING AGRICULTURE TO MARKETS

Does your local supermarket stock local pumpkins, honey, bananas,eggs, meats, fruits, milk & vegetables?

4 ways FARMERS were linked to MARKETS

Linking farmers to markets case studies
* a selection of brief
case studies of ways in which farmers have linked with markets, through their own efforts and with assistance from others. Not all can be considered success stories because in some cases problems have been encountered, but all illustrate different approaches to improving farmers’ market access.

[all links download the document]

1. Linking Farmer to Trader case study
http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/ags/docs/marketing/linkages_casestudies/FarmerTrader.doc

2. Linkages through a leading farmer
http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/ags/docs/marketing/linkages_casestudies/leading_farmer.doc

3. Private company linkages
http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/ags/docs/marketing/linkages_casestudies/Private_company_linkages.doc

4.Cooperative linkages
http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/ags/docs/marketing/linkages_casestudies/Cooperative_linkages.doc

extra reading:
a) http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/ags/docs/marketing/Workshops/South_Africa_2009/CRS_Zambia.pdf

b) http://www2.ca.uky.edu/cmspubsclass/files/extensionpubs/2012-19.pdf

c) http://www.ruralscale.com/resources/downloads/farmers-market-study.pdf

d) http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/FarmersMarketIncentiveProvider.pdf

d) http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp00814.pdf
e) http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/ags/docs/marketing/Workshops/South_Africa_2009/RSA_Workshop.pdf

f) http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/ags/docs/marketing/Workshops/South_Africa_2009/Business_Models_Shepherd.pdf

g) http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/ags/docs/marketing/Workshops/South_Africa_2009/PhilippiFreshProduceMarkets.pdf

Advertisements
  1. No trackbacks yet.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: