Archive for the ‘ agriculture ’ Category

Meanwhile at sunrise..

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kilome Avocadoes

Can be served with slices of bread as a snack

or Served – ‘Hot n Sweat’

to thrill your tongue..

​the only thing local parents/traders warrat you, is..

Drought?

 Crop failure Kilome ©Muoki Kioko 2017

Crop failure Kilome ©Muoki Kioko 2017

 

Kenya is in a drought situation few have experienced before, with many looking at receiving food Aid. However one young farmer in drought prone Makueni County is having a different conversation – he is busy working out how to expand his farming

NO RIVER, NO WELL!!

The region (kilome) had just come from 6 straight months without a drop of rain, rains came but in a months time No More Rains. People pass by their shambas NOT wanting to look at the dry crops however this young gentleman is busy on his farm

Tomato Farming Kilome ©Muoki Kioko 2017

Drought crop Kilome ©Muoki Kioko 2017

…he say’s

“my grandfather told me of a question his friend asked him:

‘How can water fall over your head, shoulders and onto your feet..then you start chasing after it kilometers away to pick it up after it has washed the ground to use it’?”

Current Harvest Kilome ©Muoki Kioko 2017

He also asks Youth: Do any of you ever do the maths of the work you do?

To those who say it’s expensive; he  started off with the sell of a calf to set up his system of farming (No Bank Loan, No Aid Agencies..).

HIS ADVICE; It’s NOT a competition of who can do it, I’m CONSTANTLY Open to Learning to improve myself – i Do NOT know it ALL!!

*To those willing to learn how he manages to irrigate in such a Hot Dry Area without Rivers – i’m willing to train ANY Youth or Community willing to learn what i’ve learnt farming in Makueni with meagre resources..

 

 

 

 

Ostrich farming (Part 2)

Ostrich value chain © ostrich business planning

Above is the ostrich value chain and below Ostrich leather product being sold locally

Ostrich leather purse © muoki kioko 2016

Ostrich Processing

Ensure there is a supply of slaughter birds to keep the abattoir commercially viable.   

Processing includes all of the following activities:  – – – – – – –

  • slaughtering birds  
  • deboning the carcass 
  • value adding the meat (portioning, ready meals, hams, bacon etc)  
  • skin tanning  
  • manufacturing leather goods 
  • cleaning and dying feathers  
  • manufacturing feather products

 The ostrich has a unique fat pan that carries other manufacturing opportunities once consistent quantities of a fat are produced

As ostrich is a new industry it is understood that there is a lack of product knowledge from producer level right through the chain and as a result the market is confused with differing information.   

Examples: – – – 

  • Dark and light coloured muscles being accepted as normal and/or age or genetic related, when the cause is nutritional.   
  • Genetic influences on hides have been taken as caused by age at slaughter 
  • Less tender meat cuts being sold as Filet quality  

Ostrich farming for Kilome (part 1) 

What is an Ostrich?

  •  Largest But flightless bird
  •  Life span: 30 to 70years
  •  70-100 eggs per year
  •  Reproduction Age: 42years
  •  Temperature tolerance: -30C to +56C
  •  Hieght 8-9 ft
  •  100 Kg weight in 10months
  •  Running speed 70

The Ostrich producer ranking?

  • South Africa
  • China (Still buying breeding stock!)
  • Israel
  • Iran
  • Australia
  • USA, Mexico, Japan,
  • Malaysia,Croatia,Philippines,
  • Thailand, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait,
  • Egypt,Brazil, United Arab Emirates,
  • Turkey, Pakistan, India

 IRAN

  • Iran rears and slaughters
  • 150,000 + birds per year
  • Direct government support
  • State Sponsored Breeding Farms
  • Claims to be third largest  Ostrich farmer


China

  • Ostrich Boom in last 9 years
  • Had ostrich farming in over 30 provinces seven years back
  • Massive local consumption potential
  • Has now started export of Ostrich Meat and Products



Ostrich can feed the world?

  •  Best FCR
  •  18kg – 24kg (8 weeks)
  •  45kg – 80 kg (16 weeks)
  •  70kg – 170 kg (26 weeks)
  •  100 kg – 400 kg (42 weeks)
  •  Healthy and organic meat
  •  Multiplication
  •  min 30 chicks/hen/year
  •  Can generate PKR 100,000/hen
  •  Highly Profitable Business
  •  POC Support
  •  Low Space/ Food requirement
  •  Premium for Early movers
  •  More profitable than cattle, goat and poultry

Why Ostrich Farming

  • Natural Environment is Ukambani
  •  Agricultural Country
  •  Livestock
  •  Meat as Prime Food Source
  •  Cheaper Labour
  •  Low feed cost
  •  Little or no handling
  •  Feed to Weight Ratio
  •  Product Variety
  •  Leather Industry
  •  High Profitability
  •  Adaptability (Ukambani natural habitat)
  •  Success in entire World

(*source: Pakistan Ostrich Farming)

There are 4 clearly identifiable phases that the industry has passed. 

Phase 1: Initial Development of Industries with full infrastructure 

This phase includes countries that had full infrastructure for production, processing and marketing with commercial scale capacity. Countries included here are South Africa, Israel, Zimbabwe and Namibia. Israels entry into the industry was the first outside South Africa in modern times. During this period Zimbabwe and Namibia were also exporting eggs, chicks and breeder birds to support the development discussed in Phase 2. Eggs, chicks and adult birds were also exported from Tanzania and Kenya. 

Figure 2 – Namibian Community Farmers 

Phase 2: The first countries importing foundation stock outside Southern Africa and Israel 

This phase includes the first countries to import foundation stock from their original countries, which included stock taken from the wild. Countries included in this group are USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, UK and Northern Continental European countries such as The Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and France. Other importers of stock during this phase were China, Japan, Malaysia, Thailand and Philippines. These countries imported a diversity of genetics not only from Namibia, Bophuthatswana and Zimbabwe but also from Tanzania and Kenya. South Africa was unable to export fertile eggs and live birds until 1998. However, there were many reports of illegal exports from South Africa, prior to the change in legislation. During this period it was impossible to identify the genetic origin of the birds. 

Phase 3: Phase 2 countries selling to more countries new to ostrich 

The countries listed in Phase 2 failed to successfully move from importation of foundation stock to commercial production. As a result they sold their stock onto new countries and accompanied by the same errors in production advice. The first recipient countries were Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece in Europe and then onto Brazil and Argentina. Stock from these areas also moved into Eastern Europe and the Middle East. At the same time stock moved to Mexico, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela and Chile. Nowadays stock is moving into Nigeria and other North African countries, Pakistan and other areas still working to establish commercial poultry production.

Phase 4: Industry in Contraction 

Obtaining accurate production data is challenging, but a review of the last meaningful table published illustrates why this is. As at 2012 the industry is in a poor situation, with limited, if any slaughter activity in most areas. Several hundred birds per annum at the most in some locations. What about the Phase 1 countries? 

There are still some birds slaughtered in South Africa  probably around the 100,000 level per annum – as slaughter numbers have reduced steadily over the past 10 years. There are a number of reasons for this. One is several outbreaks of Avian Influenza that have resulted in the inability to export meat, which is a major source of revenue. The South African producers have failed to modernise their production systems with the result that they have failed to reduce their costs of production. This results in uncompetitive meat production when measured against the costs of mainstream meat products. The ostrich leather market virtually collapsed in recent years as a result of the inconsistencies in quality and supply from all sources. 

The political situation in Zimbabwe has prevented Zimbabwes production from developing its potential. Israels production failed when there was an outbreak of avian influenza in their poultry flocks preventing them from exporting their meat. Their industry had no local meat consumption as ostrich is not kosher, but ostrich is acceptable to consumers who require Halaal certification. 

 Time now to capitalise on lessons learnt 

At this point in time (2012) it is necessary to observe the development of the established commercial meat production species: pig, poultry (mainly chicken but with turkey, duck, guinea fowl and other poultry becoming players), along with cattle, sheep and goat as the mainstream current competition to ostrich meat. Not only does ostrich have to compete for shelf space in super markets for mainstream meat types but also other speciality meat types such as venison, emu, wild boar, kangaroo, rabbit and crocodile. 

The important factor in favour of ostrich is their ability to produce meat protein at similar feed efficiencies and therefore cost as pig and poultry. South Africa, the dominant producer of ostrich, remains working with outdated systems that continue to fail their producers. These outdated systems were passed onto the new developing countries. 

Over the past few decades, pig and poultry production has become extremely efficient in their production methods. For example in broiler production the growing chick spends 25% less time on the farm to reach the same weight than it did 25 years ago. In the same 25 years ostrich has gone through these various phases. 
These 25 years have provided the opportunity to gain experience and prove the potential that under the right management systems, ostrich can reach the same slaughter weight in less than ½ the accepted time. It now requires adoption of the knowledge learnt and implemented on a large enough scale to ensure it is commercially viable before it is too late.

Inside kilome:- Viewing Emali

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Emali from Kilome ©muokikioko2016

South viewed from Kilome hills is Emali town. At sunrise or sunset the town is hit by sun rays from the left or right creating shadows and highlights that make unending African landscape possibilities..

*Town is famous for red onion production/trade and also serves as a junction access to nearby Kyulu Mts, Nzambani cliff and  Loitokitok (paved Rd) at the base of Mt. Kilimanjaro which is an entry point to Amboseli game reserve and access border point to neighboring Tanzania.

Don’t you envy residents waking up to this view daily..

photos and text
©muoki kioko
2009-2016
email:muokikioko@gmail.com

Nzumbula/’Mukwaju’ (Tamarind)

Tamarind cultivation is nearly comparable with mango cultivation. Tamarind is a drought resistant tree, if grafted seedlings are planted can yield within 5years.
You can plant 7m X 7m distance. In this pattern, u can accommodate 204 plants in an hectare (around 80 plants in an acre)

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THE TAMARIND (Tamarindus indica) is a hardy tree well adapted to the semi-arid tropics.
This economically important tree is ideal for farm-forestry in the drought-prone regions. It is popularly referred to as indian dates.
The tamarind tree can serve as an
insurance crop and a “pension crop” for the farmers in the dry belts.
The time for a tamarind tree to reach its first harvest will vary, depending on the method of propagation.
A tree propagated by bud-grafting will come into bearing in 3 to 4 years, whereas trees propagated by seed may take up to 12 years. Practical management and local conditions will also affect the time for trees to bear. A well tended tree, grown from seed, in an open area will come into bearing in about 7years. Regardless of the method of propagation, pod yield should stabilise after 15 years.

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The tree has a pod bearing capacity of 50-60 years, but may yield fruit for over 200 years.
Fruit ripeness and yield Pod skin colour does not change rapidly with maturity and individual fruits mature at different times, so harvesting should be carried out
selectively. Mature fruits should have a brown shell, while immature pods have a green skin.
At maturity, the fruits are filled with a sticky brown to reddish-brown pulp and the seeds become hard and glossy.

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The pod skin becomes brittle as the pulp shrinks and the shell can be broken easily by hand. The ripe pod produces a hollow sound when tapped with the finger.
The yield of a tamarind tree varies
considerably and is dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Pod yield can also be cyclic, with bumper yields in every third year. A young tree may yield 20-30kg of fruit per tree in a year and a full-grown adult tree can yield about 150-200kg of fruit per tree in a year. An average tamarind tree may yield 100kg of fruit per tree in a year.

photos and text
©muoki kioko
2009-2015
email:muokikioko@gmail.com

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