Archive for the ‘ kiima kiu Ward ’ Category

Sports Entertainment in Kilome


During the just concluded ball sports games their was great entertainment and showcasing of talent to keep residents glued to the games.
From spikers like this one


to lady dribblers


agitated goal keeper’s


to female referees in men’s matches


a host of talent to watch for


photos and text
©muoki kioko

Easter in Kilome


From these ‘Family 3 bedroomed cottages’ starting ksh12,000(yet to be advertised)

to ‘A Boutique accommodation’ (


camping in community held grasslands or hills of this location. These are some of your options for accommodation as you relax

in the scenic ukambani landscape that includes waterfalls, either as a group or with family


Discovering some beautiful local insects & birds

get guided by community guides through kilome Landscapes


or just drive around enjoying the scenary (that may include Views of Kilimanjaro) or visit Rock 14111
For the youthful and curious one’s go game driving on the konza plains or take on ‘Photography’ of nature

karibu kilome

As it’s Easter you can also sample attending a local Easter service.

Don’t forget kilome has sweet, fresh local fruits, pass through a local fruit stand and enjoy farm fresh fruits!!


For a souvenir Shop for these kilome baskets and other items to carry home as a local souvenir or to make business with back home. Use this link to interact with those who make them to ensure they are genuine

The first 2 accommodations have swimming pools. For community camping & community guides email:
or call 0722 891689

Text & Images
©Muoki Kioko 2009-2015
All rights reserved.

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Inside Kilome – viewing Kajiado


Biking trails with views of Kajiado & on clear days Kilimanjaro.
Remember to register your presence at nearest Government official or community leader, alternatively book for a pre-arranged tour package.

Text & Images
©Muoki Kioko 2009-2015
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Bee products that can be done in kilome


1. Bee keeping Manual:

2. HoneyBees Deceases and pests: practicle guide

1.1 What are value added products from beekeeping?
1.2 The purpose of this bulletin
1.3 How to use this bulletin
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Physical characteristics of honey
2.3 The composition of honey
2.4 The physiological effects of
2.4.1 Unconfirmed circumstantial evidence
2.4.2 Scientific evidence
2.5 The uses of honey today
2.5.1 As a food
2.5.2 As a food ingredient
2.5.3 As an ingredient in medicine-like products
2.5.4 Products of honey
2.5.5 Others
2.6 Honey harvesting and
2.6.1 Colony management
2.6.2 Unifloral honeys
2.6.3 Contamination during
2.6.4 Contamination during
2.6.5 Cleanliness
2.6.6 Processing
2.6.7 Purification
2.6.8 Moisture content
2.6.9 Prevention of fermentation
2.6.10 Heating
2.6.11 Packaging
2.7 Storage
2.8 Quality control
2.9 Caution
2.10 Market outlook
2.11 Honey from other bees
2.12 Recipes
2.12.1 Liquid honey
2.12.2 Creamed honey
2.12.3 Comb honey
2.12.4 Mead
2.12.5 Honey beer
2.12.6 Honey liqueurs
2.12.7 Honey spreads
2.12.8 Honey with fruits and nuts
2.12.9 Honey with pollen and
2.12.10 Honey paste for dressing
2.12.11 Sugar substitution
2.12.12 Fruit marmalade
2.12.13 Honey jelly
2.12.14 Syrups
2.12.15 Rose honey
2.12.16 Caramels
2.12.17 Nougat and torrone
2.12.18 Honey gums
2.12.19 Gingerbread
2.12.20 Marzipan
2.12.21 Honey in bakery products
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Physical characteristics of
3.3 The composition of pollen
3.4 The physiological effects of
3.4.1 Unconfirmed circumstantial evidence
3.4.2 Scientific evidence
3.5 The uses of pollen today
3.5.1 As medicine
3.5.2 As food
3.5.3 In cosmetics
3.5.4 For pollination
3.5.5 For pollution monitoring
3.6 Pollen collection
3.7 Pollen buying
3.8 Storage
3.9 Quality control
3.10 Caution
3.11 Market outlook
3.12 Recipes
3.12.1 Pollen extract
3.12.2 Beebread (after Dany,1988)
3.12.3 Honev with pollen
3.12.4 Granola or breakfast cereals
3.12.5 Candy bars
3.12.6 Pollen supplements and
substitutes in beekeeping
3.12.7 Cosmetics
3.12.8 Pills and capsules
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Physical characteristics of bees wax
4.3The composition of beeswax
4.4 The physiological effects of wax
4.5 The uses of wax today
4.5.1 In beekeeping
4.5.2 For candle making
4.5.3 For metal castings and
4.5.4 In cosmetics
4.5.5 Food processing
4.5.6 Industrial technology
4.5.7 Textiles
4.5.8 Varnishes and polishes
4.5.9 Printing
4.5.10 Medicine
4.5.11 Others
4.6 Wax collection and processing
4.7 Buying
4.8 Storage
4.9 Quality control
4.10 Market outlook
4.11 Recipes
4.11.1 Bleached wax
4.11.2 Candle makin2
4.11.3 Cosmetics
4.11.4 Grafting wax for horticulture
4.11.5 Polishes and varnishes
4.11.6 Cravons
4.11.7 Leather preserves
4.11.8 Waterproofing textiles and paper
4.11.9 Paint
4.11.10 Wood preservative
4.11.11 Swarm lure
4.11.12 Topical ointment for burns
4.11.13 Veterinary wound cream
4.11.14 Adhesive
4.11.15 Determination of
saponification cloud point
(1uoted from ITCg 1978)
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Physical characteristics of
5.3 The composition of propolis
5.4 The physiological effects of
propolis 1
5.4.1 Unconfirmed circumstantial evidence
5.4.2 Scientific evidence
5.5 The uses of propolis today
5.5.1 In cosmetics
5.5.2 In medicine
5.5.3 Traditional use
5.5.4 Food technology
5.5.5 Others
5.6 Formulations and application
methods for human and animal use
5.6.1 Raw
5.6.2 Liquid extracts
5.6.3 Additives
5.6.4 Injection
5.7 Extraction methods
5.8 Collection
5.9 Buying
5.10 Storage
5.11 Quality control
5.12 Market outlook
5.13 Caution
5.14 Patents including propolis
5.15 Information sources
5.16 Recipes
5.16.1 Ointments
5.16.2 Oral and nasal spravs
5.16.3 Suntan lotions
5.16.4 Propolis syrups or honeys
5.16.5 Propolis tablets
5.16.6 Propolis shampoo
5.16.7 Anti-dandruff lotion
5.16.8 Propolis toothpaste
5.16.9 Anaesthetic propolis paste
5.16.10 Creams
5.16.11 Facial masks
5.16.12 Micro-encapsulation
5.16.13 Ouality tests for antioxidant activity
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Physical characteristics of royal jelly
6.3 The composition of royal jelly
6.4 The phsiological effects of royal jelly
6.4.1 On honeybees
6.4.2 Unconfirmed circumstantial evidence
6.4.3 Scientific evidence
6.5 Uses and marketing of royal
6.5.1 Dietary supplement
6.5.2 As ingredient in food
6.5.3 As ingredient in medicine-like products
6.5.4 Ingredient in cosmetics
6.5.5 Others
6.6 Royal jelly collection
6.7 Storage
6.8 Quality control
6.9 Caution
6.10 Market outlook
6.11 Recipes
6.11.1 Freeze-dried (lyouhilised)
royal iellvy
6.11.2 Honey with royal jelly
6.11.3 Yoghurt with royal lelly
6.11.4 Jellies and soft caramels
6.11.5 Liquid preparations
6.11.6 Dried juice concentrate
6.11.7 Tablets
6.11.8 Capsules
6.11.9 Cosmetics
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Physical characteristics of
7.3 The composition of venom
7.4 The physiological effects of
7.4.1 Unconfirmed circumstantial evidence
7.4.2 Scientific evidence
7.5 The use of venom today
7.6 Venom collection
7.7 Venom products
7.8 Buying
7.9 Storage
7.10 Quality control
7.11 Caution
7.12 Market outlook
7.13 Recipes
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The chemical composition of
adult and larval honeybees
8.3 The uses of adult bees and
8.3.1 For beekeeping
8.3.2 For pollination
8.3.3 As food
8.3.4 As medicine
8.3.5 In cosmetics
8.4 Collection
8.4.1 Adult bees
8.4.2 Honeybee larvae
8.5 Buying
8.6 Storage
8.7 Quality control
8.8 Caution
8.9 Market outlook
8.10 Recipes
8.10.1 Preparation of mature and immature bees for human
8.10.2 Bakutig traditional recipe
from Nepal (Bur2ettg 1990)
8.10.3 Frozen larvaeg pupae or
8.10.4 Rawg fried and boiled larvae
8.10.5 Dried larvae and adults
8.10.6 Basic general recipes
8.10.7 Bee mango chutney
8.10.8 Bee chapattis
8.10.9 Pastry
8.10.10 Popmoth
8.10.11 Bee sweets and chocolate coated bees
8.10.12 How to raise and harvest
wax moth larvae
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Description of product types
9.2.1 Lotions
9.2.2 Ointments
9.2.3 Creams
9.2.4 Shampoos
9.2.5 Soaps
9.2.6 Toothpastes and mouth rinses
9.2.7 Deodorants
9.2.8 Facial masks
9.2.9 Make-up
9.2.10 Lipsticks
9.2.11 Perfumes
9.3 The sources of ingredients
9.3.1 Local
9.3.2 Imported
9.4 Technical requirements
9.4.1 Raw materials
9.4.2 Equipment
9.4.3 Emulsions
9.4.4 Mixing
9.4.5 Colouring
9.5 Advantages and applications of primary bee products in cosmetics
9.6 Buying
9.7 Storage
9.8 Quality control
9.9 Packaging and presentation
9.10 Marketing
9.11 Caution
9.12 Market outlook
9.13 Recipes
9.13.1 Lotions
9.13.2 Ointments
9.13.3 Creams
9.13.4 Sun protection
9.13.5 Shampoos
9.13.6 Solid soaps
9.13.7 Liquid soaps
9.13.8 Toothpaste and mouth rinses
9.13.9 Deodorants
9.13.10 Face packs Honey face pack
9.13.11 Make-up
9. 13.12 Lipsticks and glosses
9.13.13 Depilatory waxes
9.13 14 Shaving preparations

Industrial activity & pollution sources like high vehicle traffic nearby affects bee product quality leading to much lower prices in markets!


*making beehives & other be processing equipment manuals for fundis :

Text & Images
©Muoki Kioko 2009-2014
All rights reserved.

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Cassava Industrial products (part 4)

On asking locals if they’ve ever failed to harvest cassava even in the driest year, the answer is Never.


Cassava, a tuber that does well in semi arid regions like kilome without much input. The industrial process is largely manual making it easier to run in rural setups while greatly increasing shelf life & usability of products.


1. Skin – Cyanide is extracted which is used as industrial chemical (Main ingredient for Gold ore purification process), also used in photography industry and for fumigation. Highly Toxic and every country has regulations governing handling of same.

2. Tuber Flesh
a) Wet:
– Eaten as high fibre food raw/cooked while fresh
– pounded to produce starch for clothing and Food industry (eg royco & Maggie cubes)
– by hydrolysis starch can be turned to glucose syrups, dextrose, monohydrates and vitamin c for sweets, biscuit & candy industries.
– Glucose fermented will produce Ethyl Alcohol, acetone, butanol & high fructose syrup.

b) Dry:
To dry, peel tuber when fresh. Sock and wash, then slice up for sun drying [mainly manual ie labour intensive though machinery is now available for slicing and drying].
When dry crushed to powder & used as flour for cooking and baking.
Minced and dried


it’s used as a fibre additive in foods and also for making snacks with extended shelf life.
Compressed to pellets its used/sold as chicken & goat feed. It can still be pounded to powder later.

– Cut into 1foot pcs  as seedlings for planting
– Stems & leaves pounded in hammer mill for protein extraction & waste fibre used for combustion as steam and power. Waste liquid fermented for methane, while its end produce is used as manure.

Used as vegetables

image well as animal fodder.


*(Can also be dried & packaged)

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2009 – 2014
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Cassava – The Industry (value addition part 2)

Ruut Extra Premium Beer by Deageo (Ghana)- Cassava beer

Ruut Extra Premium Beer by Deageo (Ghana)- Cassava beer

This is an ongoing series on cassava industry. Cassava is a tuber that does well in this part of Kenya without much work. Attached are downloadable(pdf) documents you can read on phone/tablet/computor about the whole Cassava industry from how to Plant, health benefits, cassava products, country Policy, case studies of industry, by products, products movement,plus the perceptions of cassava products. Enjoy and ACT!
[*all downloadable docs are highlighted and blue in colour. Click on each document to save it]
wpid-crisp-chips-uncooked-HDR1_Natural.jpgBENEFITS OF CASSAVA:

A) Cassava for health benefits 
Cassava tubers contain calories, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin B and C, and starch. The leaves contain vitamins A, B1 and C, calcium, calories, forfor, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and iron. While the bark, contains tannin, peroxidase enzymes, glycosides, and calcium oxalate.
Cassava variety proved to have benefits for our health. Please you consider the benefits below:
1. Cassava good for your low-calorie diet.
Why so? This is because cassava is a food with a lower carbohydrate content than rice and bread, with a high fiber content thus making the stomach feel full for a long time.
2. Cassava good for your digestive health
Cassava is a tuber that contains a lot of insoluble fiber or fiber is not soluble in water.Fibers of this type serves to facilitate the process of defecation, and able to absorb and remove toxins in the intestine, so that your digestive health.
3. Overcoming rheumatism can be done with the use of inner and external use.
In external use, as many as five pieces of cassava leaves, 15 grams of red ginger, and whiting to taste, crushed and water added to taste. After stirring, herbs smeared on the body of the sick.
On the use of, 100 grams of cassava stems, one stem lemon grass, ginger and 15 grams boiled with 1000 cc of water to the remaining 400 cc. Then, filtered and drunk the water as much as 200 cc. Do twice a day.
4. Overcoming headaches, pounded cassava leaves and then used to compress. As drug fever, 60 grams of cassava trees, 30 grams of jali which has been soaked until soft boiled with 800 cc of water until the remaining 400 cc. Potions and drink filtered water as much as 200 cc. Do twice a day.
5. Overcome the wounds fester, fresh cassava stems crushed and then placed on the body of the sick. To scratch, grated cassava then placed on the sick and bandaged.
6. Drugs wounds exposed to hot objects, cassava grated and squeezed. The water was allowed to stand until starch settles a few moments, then starch is applied on the wound.
7. Addressing diarrhea, seven pieces of cassava leaves boiled with 800 cc of water until the remaining 400 cc. Then filtered and drunk the water as much as 200 cc. Do twice a day.
8. Deworming drugs, 60 grams of cassava bark and 30 grams of leaves ketepeng chinese boiled with 600 cc of water until the remaining 300 cc. Then filtered and drunk the water before bed. Overcoming beri-beri, 200 grams of cassava leaves eaten as a salad.
9. To improve stamina, 100 grams of cassava, 25 grams kencur, and five grains angco (red dates, buy at the drug store / food china) that have been seeded, blended with enough water added. Then add honey and drink.
10. Prevent cancer and prevent tumor rationalization, B17 content in leaves and tubers singkon stimulate red blood cell hemoglobin. Generally, human disease caused by a lack of red blood cell count. It should be noted, in some ethnic groups who are accustomed to eating cassava, cancer cases are rare.
11. Preventing blindness cassava leaves are rich in compounds bakarotennya. Such pro-vitamin A and beta-carotene are antioxidants. So it can help the health of the eye and may also prevent interference with the eye or blindness. (*adopted from



Kenya Draft cassava policy.pdf



Cassava consumption, utilization, production, …



2) Starch Market
– Paper
– Textile
– Food/Baking
– Phamaceutical

Cassava Industrial Demand in Kenya.pdf



Here theres great potential for Jua Kali in mechanizing the chipping process to allow drying of tuber to enable growth of animal feeds powder and Alternatives to Maize flour, baking industry flour, raw products for Beer making replacing Malt as cheaper raw material for beers, starch making..etc

Also potential exists for machinery making for processing of cassava leaves for vegetables & animal feed

Processing Cassava into chips a study.pdf



– Selecting varieties

– Selecting stems

– How to Grow

_ Harvesting

cassava illustrated guide book.pdf



Food Markets Global food outlook 2014.pdf

Visual perceptions of cassava products 2013/14.pdf

commercial systems 2014.pdf

Cassava International Profile of Markets.pdf



– 2013- Brewing Handbook.pdf

Cassava starch as substitute to Barley in Malts.pdf


Inside Kilome – Salama


salama market

Located on Mombasa – Nairobi Highway is this Centre that’s also a beautiful market place cum stop for anyone wishing to stop and stretch from their drive from Mombasa. ie. ideally a place you’d want to stretch before your last leg to Nairobi. Just 100Kms from Nairobi it’s got a large paved parking which can serve well as a point to regroup when traveling from Nairobi headed to the Southern National parks [Amboseli NP & Tsavo NP] or when headed to the coast as a group.

Easily recognizable by the Mosque and Kilome/Nunguni hills in the Background. On Market days you will get a lot of local products from the region (depending on season) like Cassava, banana’s, promagranets(Makukumanga), mangoes, water melons.

Said to have developed on the Directive of Kenya’s first president ‘Jomo Kenyatta’ as a safe market to trade in after the previous market located slightly inland became inconvenient for traders as they disagreed with locals. He is said to have told the traders he will give them pahali Salama- thus the Name.
Interesting places to visit nearby Includes This waterfall

Salama Sunset


Looking out towards Salama and into masailand at sunset are these gradient landscapes as the sun sets.

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2009 – 2014
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Making Poultry Feeds

Feeds account for more than 80 per cent of poultry production costs. A farmer who manages to bring down this cost to about 50 to 60 per cent stands to make good returns in the poultry business. Farmers who formulate and make their own feeds at home save an average of Ksh 840 for every 70kg
bag of chicken feed, which is a great saving for those doing commercial production.

Below, we give farmers some guidance on what they need to be able to formulate their own feeds and cut down their production costs:

Preparing layers chick mash (1-4 weeks)
Since they are growing, chicks require feed with Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) of between 18 to 20 per cent. Amino acids are important additives in all feeds in order to make a complete feed for all animals. For hybrid chickens the addition of amino acids is very important to maintain a balanced
diet for fast growth.

The following ingredients can be used to make a 70 kg bag of chick mash:
31.5kg of whole maize
9.1kg of wheat bran
7.0 kg of wheat pollard
16.8 kg of sunflower (or 16.8 kg of linseed)
1.5 kg of fishmeal
1.75 kg of lime
30g of salt
20g of premix Amino acids
70g of tryptophan
3.0g of lysine
10g of methionine
70 g of threonine
50g of enzymes
60g of coccidiostat
50g of toxin binder
To make a 70 kg bag growers feed (1 to 8 weeks)

It is important to remember that pullets or young layers should be provided with feed having a protein content of between
16 and 18 per cent. Such feed makes the pullet to grow fast and prepare for egg laying. Layers’ feed should never be fed to chickens younger than 18 weeks as it contains calcium that can damage their body organs such as kidneys (they can develop kidney stones), which interfere with egg production and also shorten their lifespan. Grit (sand) should be provided to growers that are not on free range to aid in digestion.

Making a 70 kg bag of layers’ mash (18 weeks and above)
34kg of whole maize
12kg of Soya
8kg of fishmeal
10kg of maize bran, rice germ or
wheat bran
6 kg of lime
175g premix Amino acids
70g lysine
35g methionine
70kg tryonine
35g tryptophan
50g toxin binder
Layer feed should contain a
Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) content of between 16-18 per cent. The feed should contain calcium for the formation of eggshells (Laying hens that do not get enough calcium will use the calcium stored in their own born tissue to produce eggshells). Layer feed should be introduced at 18 weeks.

Formulating a 70 kg bag of broiler feed

Broilers have different feed requirements in terms of energy, proteins and minerals during different stages of their growth. It is important that farmers adapt feed rations to these requirements for maximum production. Young broilers have a high protein requirement for the development of muscles,
feathers, etc. As the broilers grow, their energy requirements for the deposit of fat increase and their protein requirements decrease. They
therefore require high protein content in their starter rations than in the grower and finisher rations.
Broilers should have feed that has between 22 – 24 per cent DCP. The following guidelines can help the farmer to make the right feed at each stage of growth:

Preparing broiler growers feed (70kg) A drum mixer is good for mixing home made feeds
10kg of whole maize
16.7kg of maize germ
13.3kg of wheat pollard
10 kg wheat bran
6 kg of cotton seed cake
4.7kg of sunflower cake
3kg of fishmeal 2kg of lime
3.4kg of soya meal
40g of bone meal
10g of grower PMX
5g of salt
5g of coccidiostat
5g of Zincbacitrach
Broiler starter feed (1-4 weeks)
40kg of whole maize
12kg of fishmeal ( or omena)
14kg of soya bean meal
4kg of lime
70g of premix
Amino acids
35g of lysine
35g of threonine

Important tips on feed preparation

  • – When making home made feed rations, it is important to do experimental trials, by isolating a number of chickens, feeding them and observing their performance. If the feed rations are right, the broilers will grow fast and layer will increase egg production (at least 1 egg after every 27 hours).
  • – Farmers should be very careful with the quality of feed ingredients or raw materials. Chickens are very sensitive to feeds that contain mycotoxins which are present in most of the raw materials. Never use rotten maize ( maozo) to make chicken feed.
  • – Buy quality fishmeal from reputable companies. If omena is used the farmers must be sure of its quality; most of the omena in the open-air markets may be contaminated.
  • – It is very important to mix all the micronutrients (amino acids) first before mixing with the rest of the feed.
  • – For mixing, farmers are advised to use a drum mixer (many jua kali artisans can make one). Never use a shovel to mix feed because the ingredients will be unevenly distributed.
  • – Spoilt maize is the main source of animal feed in Kenya. Such feed is dangerous as it ends up in human food in eggs, meat and even milk from dairy cows and goats.
  • – It is easier for small-scale farmers working in groups to buy some of the ingredients such as pre-mixes and amino acids after which they can

share the product according to each one’s contribution.

Important: To improve on the feed quality, farmers making their own feeds should always have it tested to ensure the feed is well balanced.
The KARI Centre in Naivasha has modern feed testing equipment that can test all nutrients and even the quality of the raw material used. It costs Ksh1000 to test one sample.
After preparing your feed, take a 1kg sample; send it by courier to KARI, Naivasha, Tel. 0726 264 032 or 0738 390 715. If you are on email, the centre can send the results to you. within 24 hours. Raw material suppliers Farmers who need raw materials for feed making including feed additives (pre-mixes and amino acids) can order them from the following companies:
1. Essential Drugs Ltd, E.D.L
House, Mombasa Rd, Tel. 020
263 2701/02, 0721 386 604 email:
2. Tarime suppliers Tel. 0729 099550, City stadium, Nairobi,

OR (Another Method)

The Pearson Square method:

Relies on the Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) as the basic nutritional requirement for feed. The most common ingredients used are whole maize, maize germ, cotton seed cake, soya beans, sunflower or omena (fishmeal).

Example 1: Feed for Layers
Assuming that the farmer wants to make feed for their chickens using the Pearson Square method, they have to know the crude protein content of each of the ingredients used in feed making. The farmer may use whole maize (8.23 % DCP) Soya (45 % DCP) Omena (55 % DCP) and maize bran (7 % DCP) Sunflower (35 % DCP). To make a 70 kg bag of feed for layers, a farmer would require the following ingredients:
34 kg of whole maize
12 kg of Soya
8 kg of omena
10 kg of maize bran
6 kg of Lime (as a calcium source)
Each category of chickens has its  own requirements in terms of nutrition. For example, feed for layers should have at least 18 per cent crude protein. If one were to formulate feed for layers, then they would have to calculate the percentage of digestible crude protein in each of the ingredients to ensure that the total crude protein content is at least 18 per cent to meet this nutritional requirement.

To find out if the feed meets this standard, a farmer can do a simple calculation as follows:
Whole maize = 34 kg x 8.23 ÷100 = 2.80 kg
Soya bean = 12 kg x 45 ÷ 100 = 5.40 kg
Omena = 8 kg x 55 ÷ 100 = 4.40 kg
Maize bran = 10 kg x 7 ÷ 100 = 0.70 kg
Lime = 6 kg x 0 ÷ 100 = 0.00 kg
(Total crude protein 13.30 kg)
To get the total crude protein content of all these ingredients in a 70 kg bag, you take the total crude protein content of the combined ingredients, divide by 70 and multiply by 100 thus, (13.30÷70) x 100 = 19.0 %. This shows that the crude protein percentage in the above feed formulation is 19.0 % which is suitable for layers. Before mixing the feed, whole maize including the other ingredients has to be broken into the right sizes through crushing or milling to make it palatable for the chickens. Add 250 g of table salt on every 70 kg bag of feed.

Ex2 Feed for chickens meant for meat.
Chickens meant for meat production require feed with a higher content of DCP. From the first to the fourth week, the chicks require feed with a DCP content of between 22 to 24 percent. From the fourth to the eighth week, the chicks require feed with a protein content of 21 to 22 per cent crude protein. To attain this requirement, farmers can formulate feed using the same method given above. To make a 70 kg bags of feed, they will need to have all the right the ingredients in the proportions given below:
Whole maize = 40 kg x 8.23 ÷ 100 = 3.20 kg
Omena = 12 kg x 55 ÷ 100 = 6.60 kg
Soya beans = 14 kg x 45 ÷ 100 = 6.30
kg Lime = 4 kg x 0 ÷ 100 = 0.00 kg (Total crude protein 16.10 kg)
To determine if a 70 kg bag of feed has adequate crude protein content for birds meant for meat production, the same methods is used: (16. 10 ÷ 70) x 100 = 23 %. The feed given in this example has a total crude protein content of 23 % which is adequate to feed chicken in this category. In every 70 kg bag of feed, add 250g of table salt.
Ration for kienyeji chickens

Indigenous chickens are less productive in terms of egg and meat increase. They may not require intensive feeding and management.
For this category of chickens, farmers can constitute feeds with a DCP of between 15 – 16 %. They can use the following formulation to make feeds for the indigenous chickens:
Whole maize = 33 kg x 8.23 ÷100 = 2.70 kg
Maize or wheat bran = 14 kg x 7 ÷ 100 = 0.98 kg
Omena = 7 kg x 55 ÷ 100 = 3.85 kg
Soya = 7 kg x 45 ÷ 100 = 3.15 kg
Lime = 5 kg x 0 ÷ 100 = 0.00 kg
(Total crude protein 10.68 kg)
Percentage of total crude Protein in the ingredients = (10.68 ÷70) x 100 = 15.25 %
For farmers rearing hybrid layers and broilers, it is advisable to buy already constituted feeds from reputable companies that sell quality feed. The main reason is that it is very difficult for farmers to constitute micronutrients such as  amino-acids, trace minerals, fat and water soluble vitamins that these breeds of chicken require for proper growth.
To be sure that their feed is of the right quality, farmers can send a sample of the constituted feeds for testing and advice to KARI Naivasha, which has modern equipment for testing feed quality.

LIME: Can be sourced from hardware shops

A sample costs Ksh 1,000 to test.

Send samples by courier to the following address:

KARI Naivasha P.O. Box 25, 20117 Naivasha,

Tel. 0726 264 032.

*Results are ready within a day.
Some tips on how to feed chicken An egg-laying chicken requires 130 g of feed per day (provide clean water at all times).
1 chick requires 2.2 kg of feed for 8 weeks (thus 100 chicks = 2.2 kg x 100=220 kg. Chicks should be allowed to feed continuously and given adequate clean water at all times). If they finish their daily rations, give them fruit and vegetables cuttings to feed on.
1 pullet (young chicken about to
start laying) should be fed 4.5 kg of feed for two and a half months until the first egg is seen. It should then be put on layer diet. Supplement with vegetables, edible plant leaves or fruits peelings in addition to the daily feed rations.
All ingredients used must be of
high quality and palatable. Never
use rotten maize (Maozo). Chickens are very susceptible to aflatoxins poisoning.
When using omena as an
ingredient, ensure it is free of sand and seashells.

*Article Adopted from

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Hydroponics for feeds


I remember suggesting cabbage growing to a community in Kilome that used to plant maize and beans 🙂 o was I called names and suggestions made of how my head needed to be checked! Above we can see the extent of cabbage cultivation they’ve embraced.
Next was to suggest that individuals here are hard working and given exposure can create produce on the same plot that they could feed their entire community on. Well after a years silence they were exposed to greenhouse tomatoes (planted both outside & inside the greenhouse) and their problem now is what to do with 50+ kgs of tomatoes daily from an area 20×50 metres – yes in “dryland Ukambani”


Hydroponics – soiless growing of crops with water(hydro being a main component) for feeding of livestock or for decor potted plants for homes and offices ,or even for vegetables for kitchens


Here you can see the mat effect of root systems of barley being grown to feed goats using the hydroponic system ie aquaponic forrage.


Each tray holds enough feed for a goat to feed 2 days healthily. So 4 trays stacked together will be enough feed for 7days. *Top tray has 7 day old crop, meaning your crop rotates ie by the time you get to the bottom the top is ready feed. This allows planning of feed.
Water fed into these systems is premixed with nutrients to aid maximum productivity. At times hydropronic growth of flowers (especially for export) is done in materials that allow retention of moisture and warmth over long periods like ‘Muscovite’ said to be decaying Mica that’s also found in Kilome.

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©Muoki Kioko 2009-2013
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Birding Paradise?


As I write this these are some of my daily visitors most of whom are barely 10 metres from me right now. With a pocket camera you will easily get these images while bird lovers will enjoy the constant daily drama without getting off their seat!
Above is the Somali golden breasted bunting that’s always on the ground somewhere in the compound occasionally peeping at the door.


Then there’s this family of red cheeked coudon bleu who’s young one’s come within a metre and wonder why the adults fly away when there is movement.


The emerald spotted wood (you can see the emerald spots on the side of the wings). These never cease to amaze me as you’ll even find them taking a nap near the ground infront of my door at 8:00 in the morning. Leaves you wondering where they were last night.


Then there’s this paradise fly catcher with his cousin who has beautiful long white tail feathers who’s day is not complete with an unmistakable chatter in front of the house for a few minutes.


The drongo’s are unmistakable in the compound constantly hunting from lower branches.


While the bare eyed thrush has it’s distinct call when it  checks in. looking like the common olive thrush but with black streaks under its white chin and a bare orange skin around it’s eye which gives it it’s name.
Are there specials, yes!


The green winged pytilia’s occasionally check in… and with the Eurasian migrant season having started it’s not unusual to get a visitor like this one


not forgetting raptor’s some resident, others passersby.
*a checklist of some of other birds observed here is on the ‘Flora & Fauna’ page on this site.

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©Muoki Kioko 2009-2013
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Lessons from Communities..

These last two weeks were shocking to me in terms of how much you can be taught by a grandfather about Facebook in a rural village. Yes, they are connected and knowledgeable!

When leaving college one of my colleagues of Asian origin was very friendly to locals who were well connected to corridors of power. He was clear on going into business and using his connections but was called by elders in his community who told him they would give him start up capital but he would have to choose which shoulder to lean on. He chose his community and is today a leading player in the communications industry.

As i discovered – silence is not ignorance. – THE SAME APPLIES IN RURAL UKAMBANI and a good example are the regions elections this year where the regions 1st senator was known to personally respond to any official enquiry to his desk and his people responded to him likewise.

Simply put: choose to do business eg printing, seek advisory services, consultancy services, buying products from other communities etc – don’t expect taxes from the community you ignored! People are very clear even rural folk. How do you expect to pick taxes from someone you snubbed with your resources where will the money come from? i.e. don’t turn back to me in time of your needs too! (choose “Wheelbarrow” products over local – pick your taxes from wheelbarrow)

Here’s some local business being keenly followed:

Recently the Kenya Technopolis Development Authority Draft Bill was put out for public to comment (Thank you Government!) Some issues noted by communities were:


  1. Page 14 Regulatory Provisions 25(2) License to operate in Konza fines touches on those abusing this law plus the fines.

–          *In light of financial magnitude of investments mostly corporate running into 100’s of millions of Dollars a fine of Ksh 5million cannot deter someone eying a million Dollars+. A lifetime Jail term or Ksh50 million fine would clearly leave those who intended  to abuse the facility with HARD Choices if it’s worth getting involved!

  1. Page 15 Licensing Qualifications 26 (a) there’s an appendix 1 defined at bottom of page that considers any kind of legal entity including a branch of a foreign company. This document needed to clearly DEFINE a ‘legal entity’ in Kenya i.e. that for any business to operate in the land Kenya it needs to be duly Registered according to our country laws/constitution and in a manner that doesn’t contravene International Law’s so that should any issue arise later the laws of the land would guide/apply. It also closes the “loophole” where businesses can open establishments and register the company in their mother country thereby running the establishment according to their countries laws as was said to take place with accommodation in  someprivate coastal houses. Taxes then were said to be transacted in the mother country of registration.

 2. Page 15 Licensing Qualifications 26 (c) reading own or lease land for a minimum of 30 years

–          we thought the Government bought the land so as to lease out to investors (ie land leases) thereby accruing land rates annually! *By creating the option to buy it created room for individuals to acquire Government land in the facility using the law. This we felt may open the facility to insider trading where individuals buy land wanted by a foreigner to sell to him a process that may become a dangerous trend on public resources.

 3. Page 17 (30-32) Exclusion from provision of Acts i.e. State Corporations, Urban areas and cities & physical planning Act

–          Our understanding is that these acts set minimum standards of operation, more like supervisory and by exempting yourselves who then supervises you to ensure that you meet those minimum standards of operations on behalf of Kenyan’s as a whole?

4. The Authority shall be exempt from ALL existing and FUTURE taxes and duties payable under Kenyan Law

–          This was too open for abuse especially in the area of Tax free purchases through the Authority by staff. Exemptions for a short period (specified) to allow them get on their feet may have been wiser

5. Schedule 1 (2) page 21 on committees 3(1-3) Disclosure of interest by Directors

–          Fines stipulated (ksh. 200,000) were too minimal considering size of contracts in the facility despite integrity in selection of board members. Ksh. 2million or more would be more reasonable considering habit of canvassing in our society.

6. Schedule 3 on Page 24 section 28 (a)Establishment in Konza

–          We felt this should read “establishment in ‘Konza Technopolis’” as ‘Konza’ can be construed to include Konza Ranch, Konza township or anywhere Konza.

7. Exemption of custom duties on goods or services imported we saw would preferably have been under certain conditions giving priority to locally available goods or services (still duties free) as it’s subject to abuse with companies preferring to use consultancy/products only from their countries of origin.

*The same applied to exemption from P.A.Y.E by services provided by Non Resident Employees encouraging foreign outsourcing.

8.       The Authorities activities touched on the city but already have had Adverse effects beyond the city eg activities in the envisioned 10km Buffer zone that extended to Machakos County, Kajiado county, and Kilome (Makueni County) mostly affecting land owners who are ill informed as meetings took place in hotels in towns away.

*Representation of local resident land owners from each county on the board would greatly inform the board when dealing with issues local. This comes from being informed having lived in both the city and in the rural area. These individuals MUST be PRESENT residents in that county, owning land in affected zone having never engaged in political office.

– this proposal could affect the section in your draft that stipulated about Disclosure of interest

That was the local input to the draft bill. 

PS: as a by the way is how locals are creatively staying abreast and adapting to technology. As print books get VAT’d locals have started carrying their bibles on phones for 20/= down from the print versions that cost 300/= plus

KonzaCity in Makueni according to Government Draft Bill!

The Kenya Technopolis Development Authority Draft Bill (here) Article 8 (4) page 8 clearly lists Board of Directors that includes one Governor ie ‘The Governor of the Makueni County or his designate Alternative’ as a board member.

A governor can surely only preside over what is under his jurisdiction unlike what is being carried out in stories in Media and the internet citing the city is in other counties!

Other Provisions to note in the draft bill include:

1. No person shall be eligible for employment as an officer or servant of the Authority if he has directly or indirectly by himself or through his partner, any share or interest in any
contract or proposed contract with for or on behalf of the Authority.  

2. No person shall(a) carry on business in or (b) hold himself out as providing or maintaining activities or facilities within Konza Technopolis except under and in accordance With a license issued under this act.

3. From date of business establishment in Konza businesses are exempt from income tax for 10 years and limited to 15% for next 10 years.

4. Businesses in Konza Technopolis are exempt from VAT or VAT for goods/services used within the city

5. Exemption from stamp duties on execution of activities related to the business activities of enterprises located within Konza Technopolis.

Some of these provisions entrench integrity while some create room for possible abuse by parties involved eg by encouraging use of both imported goods & labour from their home countries verses seeking local services where available contrary to provisions of vision 2030 from which the project is envisioned. ! 

In the Tax section there is need to ask ourselves as citizens if what we loose out is not more than what we stand to gain eg *if say Safaricom (as an example) were not to pay the 30% income tax [ year 2012 would translate to 30% of pre tax profit 25.5 billion = 7.65billion]. Do that to 20 companies including multinationals you have lost 150 billion annually. This is only one tax exempt, Can you justify even 200,000 or 1,000,000 jobs annually for this loss for 10 years?

Have a look at this draft bill and give your input before This Sunday 4th August 2013 to or

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©Muoki Kioko 2009-2013
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Kathongole Hill View inn

Sunset of Ngong from Kathongole Inn ©muokikioko2013

Sunset of Ngong from Kathongole Inn ©muokikioko2013

Kathongole Hill View Inn is Located on Nairobi – Mombasa road about 64 kms from Nairobi near Kautandini (see map). It’s name is derived from its location a story which i reserve for the hosts to tell.

I had the wonderful opportunity to visit the Inn on a late afternoon and on the way out i just had to stop at the gate to take this photograph(above) of Ngong Hill at sunset (One of the many scenaries around this Inn set in the savanna’s of Konza)

Open Gazibo's set viewing the Konzaplains

Open gazebos’ set viewing the Konza plains

It’s verandahs are serene surrounded by the Konza plains with plenty of open sitting space to enjoy the warm Ukambani air and as you can see in the image above it’s a popular place for those seeking a quiet recreational drink with friends out-of-town


Kathongole Hill View Inn Accomodation

Kathongole Hill View Inn Accommodation

For further information:

Tel: +254 720 670411 or  +254 731603454

Map of Activities to do near here:

Moon-rise in Kilome


We tend to hear of sunrise but never Moonrise. The moon does rise and set every day!  Yesterday was special in that it rose at around 8:00pm and was ALL reddish, more like a sunset and it arose from the east over hilltops ( imagine sunset in reverse over a hill at night). I just had a small window to capture it before it started brightening up.
Best viewed on a computer screen rather than phone

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©Muoki Kioko 2009-2013
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Kilimanjaro view in the evening

Long time since i posted an image from Kilome. Sunshine means we have a vantage point to view Mt Kilimanjaro almost every evening. So heres one such shot recently.

kilimanjaro from Kilome

For those willing to view Mt Kili without long travels Kilome is just 100kms from Nairobi(Kenya), or 1-2 hrs from Jomo Kenyatta international Airport. Download Map in previous article.


Kilome Tourism Map

Mukaa District Tourism Map

Kilome constituency tourism map

Here is the Kilome tourism Map.

To save: right click image and save image as..

Some activity places: click here

One location 3 mountain views (Mt.Kilimanjaro, Mt. Meru and Kyulu Mts):

Where to stay and family activities? (click here)



Mbona? (Swahili for ‘why?’)
Why was my child born with a disability? Why was I born in a family with a disable parent? Why my disability?
Why discriminate because i seem different?
That difference may be what makes that member of your society unique to the world or make you known to the world! Don’t / never descriminate what may be your key to your future!

Consider this:
– A disabled father seared a daughter that made Kenya‘s first lady get up and dance at a public official function. That daughter, Kenya’s International Gospel Artist  ‘Emma Kosgey’
– A Shoe repairer gone blind started running with an aid, today ‘Henry Wanyoike‘ is a world Marathon record holder!

*Disability is NOT inability! Don’t/never descriminate!
Watch this video ‘mbona’ by Africa Award winning Artist ‘Daddy Owen‘ featuring talented (blind) Denno

Text & Images
©Muoki Kioko 2009-2013
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Butterfly season in kilome

How do I differentiate between a moth and a butterfly?



Above is one of kilome’s most beautiful moths I’ve seen. Starting May to August is butterfly season in kilome, from the grasslands to bush or swamps we have varieties of both butterflies and moths.


Over the same period we also get variety of butterflies migrating by the millions east. So how do I watch, identify, or photograph butterflies?
Opportunities exist for butterfly outings, butterfly photography, butterfly breeding, butterfly art,butterfly exports, etc
Below is a downloadable book on how to watch butterflies (*to learn butterfly photography contact us using the email below)

(Click text to download book)
introduction to butterfly watching free book

Text & Images
©Muoki Kioko 2009-2013
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Mara in Kilome

I’m not pulling your leg or making up as what follows is factual to the end of this article!
Maasai Mara is world famous for its migration of animals annually (which you all know).
What most people don’t know is WHY the annual migration? and the answer to that is found in the Maasai name ‘mara‘ that loosely means dotted plains – so what?
A plain here refers to a ‘LaRGe’ grasslands with few trees here and there and that’s where the magic begins as species (even man) tends to procreate whenever theirs abundance of food for ‘young’ therefore making ‘maras’ special zones as mass breeding grounds for grass feeding animals, that in turn attracts other species during that season.
This cannot go on forever (its seasonal) as the grass and those being bred tends to make predatory easy, thus activity tends to be intensive making it an interesting spectre.
These grasslands have 3 basic habitats in all Mara’s I’ve seen – grasslands with scattered bushes, marsh area’s & bush n grass all working together to support the species that use them temporary or full time.


Here’s ‘mara’ in Kilome otherwise famously known as Konza plains.
Breeding meaning mating, producing offspring, training or bringing up is temporary in all life systems after which the breed occupy other space, what remains permanent is breeding sites eg man will build a home to breed a family but spent days all over. Likewise animals have specific sites with ideal conditions for breeding we are referring to here as Mara’s, which they occupy for those short periods then move on.
Some species I’ve seen in Mara Kilome and visible daily are grants gazelle, kongoni(Harte beest), zebra, Wilde Beest(gnu), spotted hyena, serval cat, ostriches and the critically endangered grey crown Crane (Google redlist )


Above we can see ostriches in the grasslands near hill opposite Konza Technopolis.
As breeding grounds are part of a larger system that species use it then begs what system does Konza serve?
Maasai Mara serves Serengeti and ngorongoro the rest of year hence it’s destruction may affect those two far away eco systems/money spinners.
Konza (aka Mara kilome) services the closest corridor servicing (northwards) Nairobi National Park that may house the human wing to protect them and (southwards) Amboseli National park.
What has been planned by those residing to the east and at the northern tip of the corridor?


To the east we have the Kamba community that sees a lot of free open spaces where a city and housing can be put up. To the north Konza will be an information based city with a modern agriculture bufferzone. Just curious if the Parks in both the north and south are Premium Parks and consequences to communities to the west, north & south were we to loose them (food for thought).
Did someone say African countries all have Wildllife but the world visits Nairobi NP because it’s the only one bordering a metropolitan city in the world? Could Konza have been the 2nd in the world?
Which is cheaper to put up & maintain – modern agriculture/buildings or taking Tourism from animals that freely choose an area? Again makueni county/ information based city are making information based decisions.

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©Muoki Kioko 2009-2013
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